Notes Prose

Style Given By O’Henry in “The Last Leaf”

The Last Leaf Summary

‘The last leaf’ consists of four human characters; JOHNSY, SUE, DOCTOR and BEHRMAN, and a non-living character Mr. Pneumonia. Johnsy and Sue are roommates. Johnsy falls ill and she binds herself with such a fancy that she well die with the fallen of last ivy leaf. But Sue, the very optimist, consults the painter, Behrman, to paint an ivy leaf against the wall. Behrman paints such a leaf which is clinging to its stem against the wall. At last, Johnsy recovers her health. But Behrman dies of pneumonia in the hospital.

 The Last Leaf STYLE

  In style, the main focus is on the manners which are used by the writers in his work. Critics have to deal with the dialogues, vocabulary, metaphorical diction, syntax, kinds of imagery and kind of subject matter which is used by the writer.


            A variety of Figurative or metaphorical language in which things or ideas are treated as if they were human beings, with human attributes and feelings is called Personification. In the very first line of this story “the Last Leaf”, streets are personified by the writer but there streets symbolize human passions and relationships.

“The streets run crazy and broken themselves into small strips called ‘places’.”

 Pneumonia is a serious kind of disease and may become the cause of death. Johnsy falls ill due to the prey of pneumonia. While Behrman dies of it.

 “Mr. Pneumonia was not what you would call a chivalric old gentleman.”


 The usage of dialogues is frequently existed in this story. Dialogues always occur between the two people who talk face to face. The mostly action of this story proceeds with the dialogues of Johnsy and Sue.

 “Try to sleep,” said Sue, I must call Behrman.”

                        “What is it, dear?” asked Sue.”

                        “Tell me as soon as you have finished,” said Johnsy


 These deal with the relatedness of one thing to other with direct or indirect reference. Simile is the relatedness by ‘as’ or ‘like’. But metaphor is direct relation of one thing to the other on the behalf of some quality. For example,

                       “Johnsy was lying white and still as a fallen statue.”

“Behrman had a Michael Angelo’s Moses beard curling down from the head of a satyr along the body of an imp.”


It is a technique used by O’ Henry to explain things through contrast and comparison. It is based on the quality or quantity of something. Art and literature are very close to each other but the writer compares them on the level of their functions. He pleads,

“Young artists must pave their way to art by drawing pictures for magazine stories that young authors write to pave their way to literature.”


This story also does have the devices of symbolism and imagery. Leaf deals with life, nutrition and growth as well. The symbol of shoes and icy cold is also used in this story. Shoes are the symbol of oppression, tyranny and death as well. The writer uses this symbol to show the death of Mr. Behrman.

            “His shoes and clothing were wet through and icy cold.”

 Imagery is also very close to symbolism but it appeals to senses and feelings. There is a lot of color imagery in this story.

            “I have something to tell you, white mouse.”

 The image of white mouse is used for Johnsy because she recovers her health now. The white color presents innocence and purity.

 “Johnsy was contentedly knitting a very blue and very useless woolen shoulder scarf.”

             “Old Behrman, with his red eyes…”



 The system of this universe is based on two opposite things i.e. day and night, black and white, good and bad, hope and frustration etc. ‘The Last Leaf’ is very symbolic story which conveys the theme of Pessimism and Optimism. Pessimism deals with the darken aspects of life. As optimism is totally against to pessimism, it deals with the positive ways of life. It also can be said that optimism and pessimism are the two sides of a single coin. Johnsy always leads her life as a pessimist. Sue consoles Johnsy and she consults a painter to paint the fancy of Johnsy in an optimist way.

           “When the last one falls I must go, too.” –P

           “She was looking out the window and counting-counting backward.” –P

            “It is a sin to want to die.” –O


Hope is also one of the major themes in ‘The Last Leaf’. The system of this universe is running at the idea of hope. We dream for future life due to hope. For example, if an old man is seriously ill still he is dreaming for his recovery because of hope. He does not think about the black or fatal bird. The significance of the leaf is life and nurture. Leaf is the hope of life for tree or plant. When Johnsy sees the painted leaf against the wall through the window then she says,

“Something has made that last leaf stay there to show me a how wicked I was. It is a sin to want to die.”

 The Doctor said to Sue, “She’s out of danger. You’ve won.”


The title of this story conveys the theme of death. Last means very close to death or closely to be end. The life or growth of the tree or plant may be guessed through its branches and the condition of leaves. There were almost a hundred leaves clinging with the stem but they were falling due to autumn season. Autumn is the mortal season for leaves. At the same time Johnsy fell ill due to Pneumonia. Pneumonia is the symbol of death for human being and old Behrman dies of it.

 “When the last one falls I must go, too.”

            “Mr. Behrman died of Pneumonia today in the hospital.


“The last leaf” shows the theme of friendship and sacrifice. Friendship is such a relationship that is completed with the ties of sacrifice, sincerity, love, loyalties etc. Sue is friend of Johnsy and she progresses this relation through sacrifices.

Said Sue, “Will you promise me to keep your eyes close, and not looked out the window until I am done working?”


“It was beautiful and simple as all truly great swindles are.”

After the whole discussion, we can say that ‘The Last Leaf’ is also after “The Gift of The Magi” O’ Henry’s masterpiece. ‘The Gift of the Magi’ held so much popularity that many writers wrote OPERAS and many singers sang that OPERAS. These short stories are derived from the life of the ordinary people in New York City. O’ Henry uses twist plot in his stories, which turn on ironic or coincidental circumstance. Although some critics are not so enthusiastic about his work yet the public loves it. The Last Leaf Study Guide By M Zaman Ali.

The Last Leaf William James
William James (Photo credit: Wikipedia)
Notes Prose

Style Given By O’Henry in “The Gift of The Magi”

The Gift of The Magi  Summary

Inroduction: William Sydney porter was an American short story writer. He acquired the pseudonym from a warder called Orrin Henry. Henry published ten collections and over 600 short stories during his life time. He worked as a reporter and a columnist in a local news paper agency.

‘The gift of the Magi’ is a short story of Della and James; husband and wife. They were living in a rental flat. They were so much sincere, faithful and loyal to each other, they sold their possessions to celebrate their Christmas. They are included in the list of the Magi. Magi were the wisest people who presented gifts to the Christ.

 Style used in The Gift of the Magi:


 Irony is a kind of device which is used in literature to increase the value of the work. Irony consists of saying one thing while you mean another. There are several kinds of Irony in the literature. But this story deals with the situational Irony. When their gifts become useless for themselves, it creates the situational Irony. Because gifts are presented by the wisest these gifts are useful and beneficial for the receivers.

 “I could not have lived through Christmas without giving you a present”

“Being wise, their gifts no doubt wise ones… two foolish children in a flat who most unwisely sacrificed for each other”


 In writing or speaking ‘HUMOUR’ can mean ‘MOOD’ or ‘CHARACTER’ but the word also denotes ‘that which causes laughter.’ In the very beginning of this story, the way how THE DILLINGHAMS were spending their lives was pathetic and humorous as well.

“There was clearly nothing to do but flop down on the shabby little couch and howl. So Della did it…”


 A symbol is something which represents something else (often an idea or quality) analogy or association. The Dillingham were so poor that they were living in miserable condition. Their misery is symbolized through this sentence.

 “… and looked out dully at a grey cat walking a grey fence in a grey backyard”

 Color imagery also exists in this short story.

 “She turned white for just a moment.”


 O’ Henry uses a colorful comparison in a mastery way to attract his readers. He describes the beauty of his heroine in a splendid comparison. Comparison is a device which shoes the value of something than other on the basis of quality.

 “Her eyes were shining brilliantly, but her face had lost its color within twenty seconds”

 “Being wise, their gifts no doubt wise ones… two foolish children in a flat who most unwisely sacrificed for each other”


 A figure of speech usually used in prose and verse. Similes always contain the words ‘like’ or ‘as’. Here the writer uses simile of cascade for the beauty of Della’s hair.

“Della’s beautiful hair fell like a cascade of brown water.”

After cutting her hair off Della was looking like a schoolboy.

“That made her looks like a truant schoolboy.”


Allusion is a historical or Biblical reference. The main motive of the usage of allusion is to relate the present events and characters with the previous incidents and persons and to enhance the attraction knowledge of the readers.

“Had the question of Sheba lived in the flat across the Airshaft?”

“Had King Solomon been the Janitor?”

 “The Magi – who brought gifts to the Babe in the manger.”


 It means the repetition of phrases and clauses again and again. It shows character’s physical or psychological condition in the story.

“One dollar and eighty seven cents.”

“Like a Cascade of brown waters.”


 O’ Henry often uses third person to evaluate or narrate this story. Omniscient means a story-teller with total, God like knowledge of the characters and their actions.

“She was ransacking the stores for Jim’s present.”

“He looked thin and very serious.”

Themes in The Gift of The Magi:

 Theme means the central idea of some work which may explicit or not. A single work may have several themes.


 Love means the attraction between two persons or entities there are two kinds of Love in this universe, mortal and immortal Love or worldly or spiritual Love. Love is an abstract noun but it can be materialized through the presentation of gifts. The presentation of gifts in friendship increases he passion of Love. This is the story of two Lovers, husband & wife. They have to celebrate their Christmas ceremony through giving and receiving the gifts to each other. Della sells her beautiful hair to present a gift to Jim.

As Jim also buy a wondrous gift for Della.

“Maybe the hairs of my head were number of.”

“But nobody could ever count My Love for You.”

“I sold the watch to get the money to buy your combs.


Sacrifice is one of the major themes of “the gift of the Magi”

Both gift and sacrifice are the expression of Love. Gifts are presented in the shape of objects and things as well as the devotion of the physical efforts. However, the devotion of physical efforts through the depth of heart shows the purity of Love. Della and James sacrifice for each other.

Della says,

“I had my hair cut off and sold because I could not have lived through Christmas with out giving you a presents.”

            “I sold the watch to get the money to buy your combs.”


Poverty is also discussed in this short story. ‘The Dillingham’ were so poor and leading a miserable life. Della was very contended and faithful wife. She used to save money on daily basis. The writer also tells us their expenses were high than their income.

 “Expenses had been greater than she had calculated”

 That’s why they sold their possessions to presents the gifts to each other.


After the whole discussion, we can say that ‘The Gift of the Magi’ is O’ Henry’s masterpiece. ‘The Gift of the Magi’ held so much popularity that many writers wrote OPERAS and many singers sang that OPERAS. These short stories are derived from the life of the ordinary people in New York City. O’ Henry uses twist plot in his stories, which turn on ironic or coincidental circumstance. Although some critics are not so enthusiastic about his work yet the public loves it. The Gift of The Magi Study Guide By M Zaman Ali.


Let’s speak with phrases part 3

 Asking if someone approves:

  • Do you think they’re all right?
  • Are you in favors of…?
  • Are you for…?
  • Could I ask if you approve of the project?
  • Do you approve?

 Saying you approve:

  • …’s very good.
  • I’m very please/happy about…
  • That’s a great ideal!
  • (personal) I entirely approve of the plan.
  • I can thoroughly recommend…

 Saying you do not approve:

  • I don’t think…’s very good.
  • It isn’t right to…
  • How rotten/mean etc
  • I’m dead against…
  • (I must say)I disapproved of…

 Saying something is not important:

  • … Doesn’t matter.
  • I don’t think that’s so important.
  • It’s/that’s beside the point.
  • So what?
  • That shouldn’t concern us.

 Asking for someone’s opinion:

  • What do you think about…?
  • What are your views…?
  • What are your feelings about…?
  • What do you think/feel…?
  • What’d you reckon (consider)…?

 Giving your opinion:

  • I think…!
  • As I see it…
  • As far as I’m concerned…
  • If you ask me…
  • You know what I think…?

 Saying you has no opinion:

  • I really don’t have any opinion about…
  • I really don’t know what do say…
  • Your guess is as good as mine…
  • I don’t know
  • I can’t say I have/hold any particular views on the subject/question…

 Avoiding giving an opinion:

  • I’d rather not say anything about…
  • It’s difficult to say…
  • Well, now you’re asking…
  • Not my department, I’m afraid…
  • It’s difficult to give an opinion right now/at the moment.

 Trying to change someone’s opinion:

  • But don’t you think…?
  • (Yes, but) on the other hand…
  •  But look at it like this…
  • You can’t mean that, surely?
  • But seen from another angle, one might say.

 Asking if someone is interested:

  • Are you interested in…?
  • What are you interested in…?
  • Are you keen on?
  • Do you have any interest in…?

 Saying you are interested:

  • I’m interested in…
  • I’ve some/a great interest in…
  • My main interest is…
  • I’ve a passion for…

 Saying you are not interested:

  • I’m not very interested in…
  • I don’t find (sport) very interesting (either)
  • (I’m afraid) … leaves me cold.
  • What’s no interesting about…?
  • (I must admit) I don’t take any great interest in.

 Asking if someone agrees:

  • Don’t you agree…?
  • Wouldn’t you say so…?
  • Do you go along with that…?
  • Do/would you agree with…?


  • Yes I agree…
  • I can’t help thinking the same…
  • Oh, exactly/defined/absolutely/quite
  • I’m of exactly the same opinion.


  • (Oh) I don’t agree…
  • I don’t think that right…
  • You can’t be serious…?
  • I see thing rather difficulty myself…

 Saying you partly agree:

  • I don’t agree/entirely agree…with…
  • I see what you mean, but…
  • That’s all very well, but…
  • I can see that, but…
  • I take your pint, but…

 Saying you are wrong and someone else is right:

  • (Yes) sorry, you’re (quite) right…
  • Yes, of course…
  • Yes, I don’t know what I was thinking of…
  • Yes, I must admit you are right…
  • Yes, I take your point entirely/completely…

 Saying you has reached agreement:

  • Right, we agree…
  • That seems to be that/ok, then…
  • So what are we arguing about…?
  • So we appear to agree…
  • That seems to be agreed, then…


Offering to something for someone:

  • Can I help…?
  • If you like I could…
  • Need some help…?
  • Can I help out…?
  • Perhaps I could assist in some way…




Criticism Notes

Aristotle’s Criticism On Plato’s Theory Of Forms

Introduction and overview

Humans are curious by nature. They have sought to explore the reality of their creation. All religious doctrines, philosophical and scientific theories are the result of curiosity about the man. Journey to investigate the reality is quite old, but has remained as the history of Greek civilization; it seems that the starting point. The Greek philosophers, long before the birth of Socrates, had tried to explore reality. They tried to understand the real behavior of the universe. They used the sensual and mental faculties, but some of the behaviors exceeded the capacity of their senses.

The most important of these questions was that of permanence and change. It was amazing how their minds by the word permanent and changing?

Why the word perceived by the senses seems to be changing and the word perceived by the mind seems to be permanent. That is real and what is appear in both directions? (1)

These issues have attracted the attention of all the pre-Socratic philosophers, but they could not give a satisfactory answer. For example, Parmenides believed that everything was forever, and the change was only an illusion. Heraclitus, on the other hand took the view that everything is in constant flux. (2)

These questions confuse the sense of Plato, too, and so these questions and the answers were unsatisfactory reason, the Platonic theory of forms. Gale says the morphology as a fine was the first logical and sensible answer to the questions and the stability of change. (3)

To answer these questions and develop a system for understanding reality, Plato divides existence into two realms: the realm of the material and the transcendent realm of forms.

Divided into two kingdoms solved the problem of permanence and change. We see a different world with different objects with the mind what we do through the senses. The material world perceived by the senses that are changing. That is the realm of forms perceived by the mind is permanent and unchanging. This is the real world; change the world is but an imperfect image of this world.

  1. Plato: An Introduction by Paul Friedlander, p. 127
  2.  The Cambridge companion to early Greek philosophy A.A. Long, p. 88
  3.  In Ideas: Aristotle’s criticism of the theory of Plato’s ideas by Gail Fine, p. 29

In the view of Gale’s Platonic forms were:

1. Transcendent – the forms are not located in space and time. For example, there is no specific place or time where forms such as redness exist.

2. Pure – the forms only exemplify one property. Material objects are impure; they combine a number of properties such as darkness, roundness and hardness in a single object. One way, as the circularity, is an example of a single property.

3. Archetypes – the forms are archetypes, so they are perfect examples of goods that are examples. The modules are perfect models, in which all material objects based. The form of redness, for example, is red, and all the red objects are simply incomplete, copies of the unclean in perfect shape, and redness.

4. Finally, Real – are the ultimate forms of real community, not material objects? All material objects are copies or images of some series of forms, their reality becomes only the forms.

5. Causes – The tables are the causes of all things. (1) They provide an explanation of why things are as it is and (2) they are the source or origin of those things.

6. Systematically Interconnected – Forms includes a system that leads down to the form of more general successes of joint over more objectives over subjective. This systematic structure reflected in the structure of the dialectical process by which we come to the knowledge of forms. (4)



Aristotle believed that Plato’s theory of forms with its two separate worlds, failed to explain what it was supposed to explain. In other words, he failed to explain how could be sustained and the order in this world and how we can have objective knowledge of this world. By separating the rich forms of the material world, Plato makes it impossible to explain how rich mussels objectivity and permanence possible in the material world. Objectivity and permanence of the realm of the forms do not explain the material world, because the connection between the two worlds is so difficult to understand. Aristotle and the Aristotelian philosophers used logic to criticize the theory. Gail fine went to the extreme to say:

The theory of a proposal form is unnecessary. There is no reason to divide the world into two different worlds to explain the objectivity and continuity of our experience. (6)

Aristotle developed the general critique of the other two specific objections:

1. The obscurity of the notion imitation:

According to Plato, the material objects involved to imitate the forms. It is a virtue in this regard; the realm of forms, material objects and the order is palpable. However, Aristotle says, is almost impossible to explain what his role is, or is an imitation. Properties, the shapes are (eternal, immutable, transcendent, etc.) are all-incompatible with material objects. For example how a white object can be said, or to participate to the copy in the form of candor? Is the form of whiteness white itself? How can there be without a candor, which is white? What is a white object said to be a form of candor in common? It seems that the metaphor of imitation or participation in these cases seems to break down, because the special features that Plato in this form. The only connection between the kingdom and the forms of the material world then disintegrates. Forms cannot explain any of the material worlds.

2. The third man argument:

Plato himself in his later dialogues first gave this argument. It linked to the first objection, but it is a more technical to climb the biggest problem with the theory of forms. The similarity between two material objects can be explained by Plato in the form of their joint participation in a common form. A red book and a red flower, for example, are similar in effect to be copies of the form of redness. Because they are copies of this form, they also resemble the shape. However, the similarity between the red object and the form of flushing must also explained using a different form. What shape are a red object and the form of redness in both copies to account for their similarity? When someone proposes a modified form in two copies of such things, we can always ask them to explain the similarity of form and objects. It will always need a different form.

The concept of imitation or copy of the formal teaching then runs into logical difficulties. Morphology really nothing to explain the similarity between objects in a different form every time you need more than the suggested one. Explains the similarity between the human and the shape of a man, is a third very to a man, and this always requires a different format. Explanation for the similarity of the original is never given; it postponed to the next level.

This criticism opens the door to new criticism. As there was no logical connection between the transcendent form and the material world, so many critics raised a question concerning the epistemological dimensions of this theory. Plato believed that true knowledge is knowledge of the shape and destiny of a great man to reach the realm of forms. However, it is not mention of how to reach this kingdom. Since it was above this material world, so if there was a way to get to this realm of life or death could lead to a man in this ideal kingdom. The idea was very abstract, and it was not clear enough too accepted, un-criticized.

Plato did not write most of his subjects, portraits, and most of the written work not maintained. Pheodo was the first book on this theory, and then the Republic, has explained a little ‘. However, this explanation was too little, so the theory clears. Thus, the explanation was that in theory carried out by commentators. This has become a major source of criticism of this theory. The criticism of Aristotle, and Aristotle, philosophers, according to this theory, are the most explanatory. Plato had written more, or of his books kept, there may have been that strong criticism of this theory. Even then, the theory was powerful enough to share the philosophy and philosophers into two parts. However, a group of philosophers does not agree with the content of the theory but even they accept that this theory provided human beings with s new way to think and perceive the universe.

Criticism Notes

Aristotle’s Concept Of Tragedy

“The Poetics” is primarily about the Tragedy that is considered the highest form of poetry. Abercrombie says:

“But the theory of Tragedy developed with such vision and understanding and becomes the kind of theory of literature.”

Aristotle shows that imitation is the common basis of all the fine arts, which differ in their imitation of the media, objects of imitation and how to imitate. Poetry differs from music in the middle of the imitation. Epic poetry and dramatic poetry differs based on imitation way. Dramatic poetry is itself divided into tragic or comic based on the objects of imitation. Tragedy imitates men better and comedy as worse than they are. Thus, Aristotle establishes the uniqueness of the tragedy.

Aristotle traces the origin and evolution of poetry. Previously, the poetry was of two kinds. There were “lambs” or “abusive”, on the one hand, that has evolved in satirical poems, and “hymns” in the gods or “praise” on the large, on the other side, which has evolved into epic poetry or heroic. Heroic poetry of tragedy developed, and out of the satirical comedy. Both epic and tragedy mimic serious subjects in a kind of poetry grandiose, but they differ in one kind of mimics to Epic, both suspects’ chorus and dialogue. The saga is long and varied, but the tragedy has a greater concentration and efficiency. Missing epic music, theater made the presentation and unity of action tragedy a.

“All the parts of an epic are included in Tragedy; but those of Tragedy are not all of them to be found in the Epic.”

Aristotle has an assessment of the nature and function of the tragedy. He defines tragedy as:

“the imitation of an action, serious, complete, and of a certain magnitude, in a language beautified in different parts with different kinds of embellishment, through actions and not narration, and through scenes of pity and fear bringing about the ‘Catharsis’ of these emotions.”

The definition separates tragedy from other poetic forms. First, the objects of imitation are serious to do otherwise Comedy imitates non-serious. ‘Serious’ means important, weighty. Tragedy on the basis of a second manner different from that epic tells and does not represent the actions. Thirdly, the medium is different from that opera. It employs a variety of decorations.

Aristotle regards the plot as the soul of a tragedy. Tragedy imitates “actions” and the plot consists of a sequence of events logical and inevitable. The action is as a whole. It has a beginning, middle and end.

The tragic plot must have a certain size or “length”. “Magnitude” means that the “size”. It should be long enough to allow the change from happiness to misery, but not too long to be forgotten before the end. Action too short cannot be considered good and beautiful parts are not clearly visible. The parts must be connected to each other and everything. It must be an ‘organic’ whole.

Aristotle divides the tragic plot “simple” and “complex.” The simple plot change in the fortunes of the hero is successful and the episode of Discovery, while the complex plot involves one or two. The episode is the change in the fortunes of the hero, and the discovery is a change from ignorance to knowledge. Aristotle rather complex plots their jumps, catches the eye and leads to the tragic function more efficiently. It is episodic plot, lack of probability and necessity, in the worst of all.

Aristotle places great emphasis on the need and the likelihood of the impact of a tragedy. This implies that there should be no external events and incidents. They inevitably succeed. No event or character must be redundant. They introduced the events should be expected in the circumstances.

By various embellishments in various parts, Aristotle means verse and song. Tragedy imitates the verse in the dialogue and singing in choric parties. Verse and song beautify and give pleasure. But Aristotle was not considered essential to the success of a tragedy.

Aristotle emphasizes that the function of tragedy is to present scenes of “fear and pity” and create a catharsis of these emotions. Suffice it to say that the catharsis of pity and fear, he believes their return to the right proportions as the desired “golden means.”


Aristotle lists six training or part of the tragedy, the plot, character, dictionary, I thought, spectacle and song. Two of these parts relate to the medium of imitation, one to the manner of imitation, and three to the object of imitation. Choral song found share of tragedy. Performance is more to do with stagecraft than writing poetry.

“Thought” is the power to say what for what is appropriate for the occasion. It is the language that gives us the thoughts and feelings of the characters. The language of tragedy is unusually expressive. Language tragedy “must be clear, and it should not be evil.” It must be grand and elevated with familiar and current words. ‘Rare’ and ‘unfamiliar’ words must be set in wisely to impart elevation.

Aristotle emphasizes four qualities essential to the characterization. First, the characters must be good but not perfect. Evil characters could be entering if required by the plot. Second, be suitable. Should have the characteristics of the profession or class to which they belong. Third, it must have seemed. For the likeness, this means that the characters must be living comparable. Fourth, there should be consistency in development. There should be no sudden and strange character.

Aristotle’s ideal tragic hero sets should not be all good or all bad. It is an ordinary man, the weakness and virtues, as, leaning over the side of good than harm, in a position of eminence, and the collapse of the hill, not because of willful sin, but due to some misjudgments, in turn, leads to a catharsis of the emotions of pity and fear.

Plots must arouse feelings of pity and fear, which is a function of tragedy. The tragic story is that they do not want to show () a perfectly good man moving from misery to happiness (b) the bad man will rise from misery to happiness (c) a very bad man has fallen from happiness into misery.

By comparing the size of the plot and characters, Aristotle is quite specific that the plot is more important than character. He even said that there could be a tragedy without character, but not without intrigue or plot.


Aristotle points out that one of the three units that unity of action; it is against the multiplicity of actions because it weakens the tragic effect. There may be many events, but must be related to each other, and they must all be conducive to an end. For a unit of time, Aristotle mentions it only once in relation to the dramatic action. Comparison of the epic and tragedy, he writes:

“Tragedy tries, as far as possible, to live within a single revolution of the sun, or only slightly to exceed it, whereas the epic observes no limits in its time of action.”

According to Aristotle, the end of poetry is pleasure, and right next to the pleasure of tragedy. Proper aesthetic pleasure can be possible only when the requirements of morality are satisfied. Verses and rhymes to enhance the pleasure of poetry. Peripeteia and Anagnorisis increase the operation seductive power. Pure pleasure to use the results of our feelings and thoughts about the tragic action.

These are the main features of the Aristotelian theory of tragedy. Aristotle knew only Greek tragedy. His conclusions based solely on the drama, which was familiar, and often his views are not universally applicable. In his opinion, could be questioned, but their history is the story of the tragedy.

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Criticism Notes

Aristotle’s theory of imitation

Aristotle’s term “imitation”; Plato was the first to use the word in relation to poetry, but Aristotle in a specific sense breathed again. Imitation is no longer considered poetic imitation, but is considered an act of imaginative creation in which the poet drew his material from the world of phenomena, it is something new. In the opinion of Aristotle, the principle of imitation linking poetry with other arts and is the common basis of all the arts. It is different to the category of fine arts from the other arts. Although Plato equates poetry with painting, Aristotle compares with the music. It is not a representation of slaves in the appearance of things, but it becomes a representation of the passions and emotions of men who are imitated by the music. Aristotle and his theory expanded the reach of imitation. The poet does not imitate the surface of things, but actually integrated into the interior. In the first chapter of the Poetics, Aristotle says:

“Epic poetry and Tragedy, Comedy also and Dithyrambic poetry, as also the music of the flute and the lyre in most of their forms, are in their general conception modes of imitation. They differ however, from one another in three respects – their medium, the objects and the manner or mode of imitation, being in each case distinct.”

Tool for the poet and painter are different. A imitates, through form and color, and the other through language, rhythm and harmony. Musician imitates, through rhythm and harmony. So, poetry is closer to the music. In addition, the way a poet can not only be storytelling, as epic or a description of the activities through the drama of the genre. The poem is a dramatic distinction between tragedy and comedy in the same way that mimics the human being better or worse.

Aristotle says that the poetic imitation objects are “men in action”. The poet represents the greatest men of them. He can make men better in real life is based on documentation submitted by the history and legend, and no living person. The poet selects and organizes the material and creates a reality. He brings order out of chaos. Irrational or accidental erasure and attention has been focused on solid and significant. So it gives a true ideal of its kind. His mind is not tied to reality:

“It is not the function of the poet to relate what has happened but what may happen – according to the laws of probability or necessity.”

The story tells us what really happened, the poetry of what can happen. Poetry tends to express the universal, the particular story. So, he shows the superiority of poetry over history. Poet, freed from the tyranny of facts, it will take a larger view of things or a general, in particular, represents the universal, and then shares the philosopher want the ultimate truth. He so identified with poetry, philosophy, and shows that both is means to a higher truth. The word “universal” Aristotle means:

“How can a person of a certain nature or type of will, on a particular occasion, to speak or act according to the law of probability or necessity.”

The poet continues to increase, especially public. He examines in particular, and discovers the principles of general application. She exceeds the boundaries of life without violating the essential laws of human nature. Elsewhere, Aristotle says, “Art imitates nature”. By Nature, did not mean that the outside world was created things, but the “creative force, generating principle of the universe”. Art produces mainly within the process, the physical energy to process, acts, events, and a situation which is included to the extent that arise from within, an act of will, or do some activity of thought or feeling. She makes men, “as they should be”.

The poet imitates the nature of the creative process, but the objects are the “men in action”. Now the ‘action’ may be ‘external’ or ‘internal’. The operation of the soul may be caused by what happens to a man. This brings the human experience, emotions and passions in a poetic imitation. According Aristotle’s theory, moral properties, the properties, the nature of permanent, temporary feelings of the mind and feelings are all the elements of action, and imitation in a poetic way. Poetry can imitate men better or worse than they are in real life, or to emulate as they really are. The tragedy and the epic men represent a heroic scale, better than what they are, and the comedy of men is a smaller type, are the worst … what Aristotle discuss a third option means that poetry is not meant to photographic realism in this context, RA Scott-James points out that:

“Aristotle knew nothing of the “realistic” or “fleshy” school of fiction – the school of Zola or of Gissing.”

Abercrombie, however, Aristotle defends not to discuss the third alternative. He said:

“It can only imagine life as it is, but the interesting thing is to imagine life as it could be, and is, therefore, that the impulse and imagination to inspire poetry.”

Aristotle in his theory of imitation answers responsibility of Plato that poetry is an imitation of the “ghost shadows”, three times removed from the truth, and the poet seduces us with lies. Plato condemns poetry, which of course poets has no idea of ​​the truth. The phenomenal world is not reality, but a copy of reality in the mind of the Supreme Court. The poet imitates the objects and phenomena in the world that are shaded and unreal. Poetry is “the mother of lies”.

“Objects which in them we view with pain, we are happy to contemplate when reproduced with fidelity minutes, as the forms of the vilest animals and cadavers”.

The real and the ideal point of view of Aristotle, not opposite, the ideal is real, and deprived of the possibility of an accident, purified form of reality. And this is all the greater the ‘reality’ that must be poetic imitation. The idealization is obtained through the sale of real everything is accidental, transitory and, in particular. Poetry imitates it an ideal and universal, “an idealized representation of a character, emotion, and action – in mind manifest” as poetic truth is therefore higher than the historical truth. Poetry is more philosophical, to promote a better understanding of philosophy itself.

So Aristotle with success and, finally, set aside the equivalent of Plato, and if the defense of poetry, which has since been in use for the lovers of poetry as a justification for the Muse. It breathes new life and soul of the concept of poetic imitation, and has shown that it is a reality, the creative process.

Notes Phonetics and Phonology

Introduction to Phonetics and Phonology

The important purpose of writing this note e.g.  “to explain, how English is pronounced in the accent normally chosen as the standard for people learning the English spoken in England”. The theoretical material in the present course is meant for the advanced learners who want to be familiar with the “principles regulating the use of sounds in spoken English”. Then Roach describes the significance of phonemes. The letters of English alphabets are confusing. As a result, English pronunciation should be learnt in terms of phonemes. The vowels in the words ‘pin’ and ‘pen’ and consonants in the words ‘pet’ and ‘bet’ have different phonemes. The phonemes are represented by symbols which are based on international phonetics alphabets (IPA).

Structurally, the course is divided into two parts. The first part deals with the identification and description of phonemes of English. The second part of the course is concerned with the large units (syllable, stress, and intonation). In the course, single quotes are used when words as examples are presented in spelling form e.g. ‘pin’, ‘pen etc.

Roach distinguishes dialect from accent. Different of accent are only pronunciation differences whereas ‘dialect’ has differences in vocabulary, grammar word order and pronunciation.

Instead of using the term Received Pronunciation (RP), Roach has given preferences to the term BBC pronunciation. Roach states that “the accent described here is typical of broadband with an English accent”. The course is meant for those who wish to study British pronunciation. The reason behind choosing BBC pronunciation is that this accent is chosen by British teachers and the writers of pronouncing dictionaries.

It is worth-mentioning that the name BBC pronunciation instead of RP is used in this edition of the course. It is used in 15th edition of ‘Daniel Jones’ English Pronouncing Dictionary’ and also used in ‘Longman Pronouncing Dictionary’ written by Wells.

The Roach suggested some books for the learners of pronunciation of English.

  • Choice Of English accent (O’Conner, Brown and Crittenden)
  • RP Status (Abercrombie)
  • More About British (Hughes and Trudgill),
  • More Advanced Works ( Trudgill, Foulkes and Docherty)
  • English Accent (Wells)

The website by T.C wells is also useful in this regard. Then Roach gives reason for the use of English symbols used in course of English Phonetics and phonology. These symbols are used in all modern works on English pronunciation published in Britain. Actually, these symbols were in his influential book “Introduction to the pronunciation of English”.

In the notes meant for teachers Roach states that pronunciation teaching was unfashionable in past. But in recent years ‘significance growth of interest’ can be noticed in this regard. Though the model chosen is BBC, yet the goal is to ‘develop the learner’s pronunciation sufficiently to permit effective communication with native speakers. According to Roach, a detailed analysis of classroom methods is beyond the scope of the book. The book gives the reader some of the well-tried methods dealing with teaching and testing pronunciation.


Soul & Body Perfection

Global research across the spectrum of young people have some interesting trends in the world. The most obvious is that everyone wants to look perfect – thin read. About sixty years ago, was good and is fully Marilyn Monroe has held, but somewhere along the way of defining God is changed, and the image of idol was Twiggy … slender, thin, almost sexless in place. It’s really surprising, as the archetype of sexually attractive women can not be thin stick, which goes against all the instincts of nature. Disproportionate breasts balanced on a small size and with the support of a pencil thin legs and is almost endless (if not more), not by nature to achieve. And I doubt too many plastic surgeons could do. The human body can not balance these anomalies for too long. Silicone breast pockets are a testament to the skill of a surgeon to play God … permanently.
The result of this obsession with thinness has manifested a physiological disorder that has reached epidemic proportions in the developed world, and the alarming rates of exposure, even in developing countries. Barbie as her ideal figure, girls are taking extreme measures to ‘integrate’ and affects your body chemistry and hormonal health for the rest of their lives, perhaps even a danger to the health of future generations. .. for sick mothers can give birth to sick children. Anorexic girls may have different physical problems such as decreased or absent ovulation, menstruation, even so it can not have children at all. But then, at the age of 15 years who is ashamed of having children?

Studies suggest that about 1% of the youth of the world population suffers from anorexia women – the technical term for starvation to be thin. In this process, some even die of hunger! Magical thinking begins early, even school girls before puberty and not in college are now aware of their marital status … probably no one told them they are still growing and damage to their growth process will lead to serious problems later in life. In fact, this is what would sound the alarm call of our medical authorities, more than half of teens (worldwide) are or think they should be thinner, almost everyone agrees is thin beautiful, and finally, three out of every hundred girls 8-14 concludes with serious eating disorders like anorexia. To imitate their favorite stars, so good (some of these celebrities are anorexic self, putting at best, an example inhuman).

Where to start? With our society’s sexist toys given to children. Guns and tanks are small children, can make your fantasies come true in today’s violent world, since violence will not be fashionable in recent decades. But girls are not Barbie … animals, stories, dress and imitate. Barbie is a fantasy, his stats are certainly not human, but then who said anything about the real world? While the average woman will rise to five feet four inches tall, weighs between 60 and 70 pounds as an adult and wear a size 12, one of the six senses Barbie, only weighs 50 kg and manages to fall into a size 4-dress. What are dreams made? Most children who are caught in this trap do not even know that the images of their idol of beauty have changed electronically in most cases, the airbrush, a lie … generally trafficked to eliminate all defects. Barbie and the best of creation from a plastic mold ….

Anorexia or his evil sister, body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) is bad news for young people. In the U.S., BDD attack is 2 percent of the population, which is a concern for non-pathological conditions, and shows a sick mind, rather than an unhealthy body. People with BDD are painfully aware of each body site. Their behavior is irrational and impractical, often leads to excessive weight loss, steroid abuse, unnecessary plastic surgery and even suicide. The danger lies in the fact that for anorexia or BDD, a large number of patients than ever, even compared to the clinics because they do not think they need help, affection, and can be much more widespread than we say statistics. Mental health care can evaluate the behavior of a person diagnosed with BDD, but then who thinks he needs a psychiatrist when every teenager who is spending sleepless nights in his shin to come! This inability to deal with situations is the beginning of problems.

Who are these young women to think that way? The question should be rephrased to get these young women to stop thinking that way? Excessive concern with appearance, their total commitment to each gram of fat in the body, every pore of his skin and each of the damaged muscles of the UN in shades … which leads them to be so obsessed with his appearance? The answer lies in two directions. To begin, it is the feeling of self-esteem grown (or not grown) in the family. One child looks-obsessed parents are unlikely to be familiar with how it looks. On the other hand, a child from a stable family that puts more emphasis on values, work and career development, will have little time for such nonsense. Yes, appearance matters, and it is important to be well cared for, but an obsessive behavior is to take the little warm too far.

For every parent with teen children, it should be a big concern, but then again, it has an amazingly simple solution, of course, in the form of prevention. A healthy, wholesome upbringing will not let these kinds of disorders enter the young, insecure mind. The peer group pressure will not be able to harm a child’s mind when she has ample emotional support from her family and confidence in herself. The first step, as usual, is from her home. Then, there are clinics and counsellors, but the damage is most often, already done. Once the growth process of an adolescent, pre-puberty body is retarded due to undernourishment or malnutrition, it is difficult to turn the clock back. Adults have to act fast, before entire generations of pubescent and pre-pubescent end up harming themselves, and a whole section of the society.

Grammar Notes

Grammar and Grammars

Why study grammar?

Grammar usage in daily life:

We spend the whole life in listening, speaking, reading and writing. So all these things are based on the grammatical, our large utterances, sentences, clauses, phrases, morphemes, even sounds are connected with each other under certain rules and regulations. However we can apply these rules on onomatopoeic sounds (animal sounds etc). Grammar tells us how we should apply the rules for our exact communication.

There are three features of language that are important for the perception of the mature of grammar: it is complex, productive and arbitrary. For example:

Traffic lights are mechanical symbols and these follow certain structure like grammar.

What is Grammar?

“Grammar is the name of the amalgamation of sentences, clauses, phrases, morphemes, and sounds under the certain rules and regulation”

Grammar may be defined as a book written about grammar itself.

For Example:

School boys enquire the book stalled. May I have a grammar?

According to some advance learner, grammar only deals with the written expression not with spoken.

The point of view may be support by the etymology of grammar. It is derived from Greek word meaning “To Write”

Some languages are the dependent of grammar but some are independent. Those language which are based on sounds are dependent of grammar e.g. English, French, Urdu etc.

But those which deal with the signs expressions they have no grammatical rules e.g. Chinese.

Some people are indifferent to the grammar of their language. While many others acquire the rules and structure of their languages. It implies that a language doesn’t have a grammar until it is made explicit and can be learnt from a grammar book or at school.

Correct and Incorrect:

Correct and incorrect usage of language happen our daily life. Native speakers not having the knowledge of grammar may speak language in wrong way. But the language learner will speak that language in correct way due to having the knowledge of grammar.

The point can be support with the tour of Frank Palmer (Grammarian) in Wales.

He lived in Welsh and made and attempts to learn the Welsh language. One of his Welsh friends on hearing this said “you will learn speak better Welsh than we do – you will have leant the grammar”

First source of normative rules e.g. it is I, It is me:

English grammar is dependent upon the Latin grammar because teaching / learning we have to follow the Latin rules for English. These rules make us confused.

That’s why many people say that Latin is more logical than English because there are many functions or cases of noun e.g.


  • Nominative: Ali goes to school (Noun and pronoun as subject)
  • Vocative: Ali, where are you going?
  • Accusative: Where is Ali?
  • Genitive: This is Ali’s book.
  • Dative: Ali gave me his book.

There is no reason at all way English should follow the Latin.

A second source of normative rules is ‘logic’. There is noted example of the usage of double negation in English e.g.

  • I did not go nowhere. (Wrong)
  • I went somewhere. (Correct)

The logic here is based on mathematical rule that two minuses make plus.

Another prominent example of different languages concerns the usage of singular form with the numerals.

Speech and writing:

Speech plays an important role than writing in daily life. It has already mentioned that ‘grammar’ is derived from the Greek word meaning “To Write”.

It shows that grammar deals with the written language. There is totally difference between the spelling and pronunciation of English language. It is the confusion for foreign learners.

The second and most important point which becomes the reason of confusion is intonation.

In intonation we have to follow the tonic variation; rising tone, falling tone etc.

E.g.  She is pretty?  Instead of is she pretty?

Know coming to the grammatical rules it is clear that grammar paves the way speech and writing.

Morphologically, there is a variation in the formation of plural forms of singular objects or words. In the English number system e.g. there are three common ways of deriving plurals from singular:

(1)    Add—s

Apple – apples, cat – cats

(2)    “Zero” endings

Cattle – cattle, fish – fish

(3)    Change the vowel

Louse – lice, mouse – mice

Form and meaning:

                This heading deals with the semantic and grammar of some language.

There are synonyms, antonyms, homonyms etc. in the vocabulary of some language e.g.

  • Wheat ( Uncountable noun)
  • Oat, oats
  • News
  • Hair (Uncountable noun)

Another kind of consideration holds for sex and gender. The romance languages, especially French, have some examples. First in these languages every noun has two sexes; masculine (book) and feminine (door).

But know we have three categories of gender; male, female and neutral.

The last but not the least is tenses or time of any language which leads the language in its exact and fair meanings. E.g. “If you went to Paris, I would present you a gift”



A Great Journey To Learn, Education

Education is a learning process of art, an art that covers the practical approach by theoretical exercises. Education is the key to open the door to the understanding of the known world and the world known to the unknown.

It strengthens the soul of learning and the ultimate goal to achieve and gives meaning to human thought and spirit to entertain and discriminate against innovative ideas to raise human social life learning of two main types, one road leads to practical and pragmatic approach to the world as seen innovations, discoveries and mega structures.

The second is theoretical, it describes the truth, reality and learn to follow. You may or may not be fully grasp everything. Because of his efforts to be more difficult than the complications seen hands-on learning. Practical learning is a chain of several carried out with the logic of a theoretical study, but only an imaginary world of mind and teach morals and ethics.

The theoretical doctrines may object in different groups of people who have different thoughts and vibrations to the worldly life, but for the world of education can be improved pragmatic field shelters in the original calculations and logic remain ordinary human mind for many nations, different doctrines believed that all together in the same.

Logic is a part of learning and the metaphorical aspect of reality is another. The two different, but remains speculative in the same class in the spirit of understanding and ability to the template that will be revealed knowledge or less in width.

More options appear to be taught different levels of knowledge, if any. Learning is the entrance and exit of positive and negative experiences in a proactive manner and the stages of selection. Until now, knowledge perform very important development for the education of learning. Difference or separation of knowledge and learning are handled and existing pre-defined.

Learning is another name for the practice and knowledge is another name to see the world around it will be difficult doctrines mutably is mainly theoretical but pragmatic, not logical. Therefore, what you prefer according to circumstances and consequences of more practical approach that shows the results compared with treatment and knowing mutable.

Education is the sister organization of learning, it is powerful, so the buffet and marked on learning the correct terms pragmatic. Education is a journey to learn, and this trip continues in all aspects of life at all stages of the life of humans. Education is to explore the vast world and it starts the first part in the selection depending on the skills and talent of its envelope / her character or personality.

To learn is important, because learning and skills sets and qualifications literally illiterate, to understand and adopt the correct way in which we can share good template for the improved growth of the SCO-economic and human here later.

Man is born to learn, this is the reason most honorable of all others.