Themes in Doctor Faustus
Themes are the universal and fundamental ideas presented in a literary work. There are lots of significant themes in Doctor Faustus.
Flesh and Spirit
The conflict between flash and spirit is strongly depicted in Doctor Faustus. Flash is related with human body lust and desires while spirit deals with religion and God. Flash consider worldly pleasures more important while spirit resistance against those desires. Faustus values flesh move them spirit.
Good and Evil
Good and evil are the most important issue presented in Doctor Faustus. Conflict between Good and evil makes a man hesitant, he remains confused like Faustus that either he have to adopt good or evil what way is good for him and what way sis dangerous for him.
Pride and Sin
Pride and sin is the most important factor in the downfall of Faustus. Pride belongs to the seven deadly sins, considering himself better from all, Faustus falls in pride and quickly adopt sin to fulfill his lusty desires which leads him towards hell.
Salvation and Damnation
According to Christian religion salvation is necessary for a Christian to save from hell. It one’s fail to get salvation, he will be eternally damned. Salvation actually deals with the repentance, but the Faustus refuses to repent which causes his damnation and he is punished forever in the hell.
Knowledge and Wisdom
Faustus has a great lust for knowledge. He has studies all the branches of knowledge including divinity but he feels the himself still hungry about the knowledge that’s why he adopts the forbidden knowledge which is called black art. It was his failure of wisdom while adopting the forbidden knowledge. Faustus was not true towards life because he was valuing his knowledge on his wisdom.
Man’s Lust and Limitations of Power
Man like Doctor Faustus has so many desires like lust for wealth, lust for beauty, lust for power etc. But when he adopts the wrong way to fulfill his desires he cannot be succeeded. Like Faustus sells him soul for fulfilling his desires but he comes to know about his limitations as a man when he used to just amuse and entertain dukes for showing his skill of black art. He cannot do something like God which shows the limitations of power.
Another theme in Doctor Faustus is that of greed like other heroes of Marlow’s heroes forget their responsibilities to God and other creatures instead they try to hid their weak character. Faustus was in a tragic cycle of greed and despair.
A tragic is a character that the audience thinks with despite his / her action that would indicate the contrary. Faustus in the play not the mere shell of a man existing only represents the evil in the world. He is a human beings with full of emotions and thoughts. Although the Doctor Faustus himself does not care of humanity.
The Fairy Queen as an Allegory
Edmund Spenser the writer of Fairy Queen stands among the greatest writers of the Elizabethan period whose valuable contributions fashioned a new tradition in English literature. Nowadays he is hailed to be one of the chief initiators of the Renaissance movement in English literature. Spenser’s rich and vigorous imagery, and careful treatment of metrical structure left a profound influence on the succeeding poets and ensured his place as one of the seminal literary artists in the flamboyant field of English literature.
Spenser reached the highest pinnacle of his art and invention with his romantic tour de force The Faerie Queene. It has been hailed as Spenser’s masterpiece, the supreme triumph of the poetic art in English literature. The poem is an allegorical romance symbolising the moral and spiritual journey of an individual through innumerable temptations of sins towards the ultimate attainment of glory and truth. The poem thus has a serious purpose behind its fanciful characters, settings and events. All the characters in The Faerie Queene have allegorical significance since they represent abstract ideas. The title character, the Fairy Queen (Gloriana) herself, is meant to represent Queen Elizabeth. The Red Cross Knight who is appointed by the Fairy Queen to assist Lady Una in releasing her parents from the prison of Dragon is the embodiment of Holiness, piety, and true religion (Protestantism). Lady Una stands for truth, goodness and wisdom. Her parents symbolise humanity held by Evil represented by the foul Dragon. The mission of Holiness is to champion the cause of Truth and regain the right of human race, held by subjection by the mighty force of Evil.
For a Christian to be holy, he must have true faith. So Holiness must be grounded in Truth in order to remain pure and immaculate in the world. As long as Truth and Holiness are united no evildoer can stand against holiness. The power of truth invigourates Holiness. The plot of Book I mostly concerns the attempts of evildoers to separate Red Cross from Una to decrease his strength. Most of these villains are meant by Spenser to represent one thing in common: the Roman Catholic Church. The poet felt that, in the English Reformation, the people had defeated “false religion” (Catholicism) and embraced “true religion” (Protestantism/Anglicanism).So Red Cross must defeat villains who mimic the falsehood of the Roman Church. In the course of his mission he and Una come upon various manifestations of evil. The first encounter is with monster Error. The monster Error allegorically stands for all sorts of mistakes which every individual makes in the course of his life. The fight of the Red Cross Knight with the monster Error symbolises the conflict between Protestantism and Catholicism. The books and papers vomited by Error allude to the offensive pamphlets directed against Queen Elizabeth by the Roman Catholics.
The Red Cross Knight may able to defeat these obvious and disgusting errors, but until he is united to the truth he is totally lost and can be easily deceived. This deceit is arranged by Archimago, who symbolises the hypocrisy of Papacy. When Truth and Holiness are separated, Hypocrisy gets the chance to mislead Holiness. The separation of Truth from Holiness symbolises the danger of the English Church against the hypocrisy and plots of the Roman Catholicism.
Once separated, Holiness is susceptible to the opposite of truth or falsehood. Red Cross may able to defeat the strength of Sansfoy or faithlessness through his own native virtue, but he falls prey to the tricks of Falsehood herself –Duessa. Duessa also represents the Roman Church, both because she is “false faith”, and of her rich, purple and gold clothing, which, for Spenser, displays the greedy wealth and arrogant pomp of Rome. Historically Duessa stands for Queen Mary who was a Roman Catholic by faith. Having been separated from Truth, the Holiness becomes weak and feeble. He cannot withstand the fierce attack of Falsehood and becomes a prey to Duessa. Red Cross becomes a veritable puppet in the hands of Duessa. In the similar manner Truth also becomes weak and in order to protect her virtue she gets aid and succour from Lion which stands for Courage. But subsequently the hypocrisy of Archimago makes her an easy victim Sans Loy who stands for lawlessness. She is later saved by Sir Satyrane who is a symbol of the Natural force. The implication here is very clear and concrete. Truth cannot be subjected to Lawlessness for long. It has a natural force which would assuredly impel it to reassert itself against all hindrance. The humility, symbolised by the Dwarf, informs Truth the story of the sufferings of Holiness. Then Truth goes in search of Gloriana, the Fairy Queen and Holiness is led to the palace of Divine Grace by Truth. There he recovers his former strength. He is now ready to fight against the malignant forces of nature.
Thus at the end Spenser represents the triumph of Holiness and Truth. They may be separated by various evildoers but ultimately they are united again to bring about the redemption and moral salvation of human race.
‘On Liberty’, The canonical statement of Mill’s utilitarianism can be found in Utilitarianism. This philosophy has a long tradition, although Mill’s account is primarily influenced by Jeremy Bentham and Mill’s father James Mill.
Mill’s famous formulation of utilitarianism is known as the “greatest-happiness principle”. It holds that one must always act so as to produce the greatest aggregate happiness among all sentient beings, within reason. Mill’s major contribution to utilitarianism is his argument for the qualitative separation of pleasures. Bentham treats all forms of happiness as equal, whereas Mill argues that intellectual and moral pleasures are superior to more physical forms of pleasure. Mill distinguishes between happiness and contentment, claiming that the former is of higher value than the latter, a belief wittily encapsulated in the statement that “it is better to be a human being dissatisfied than a pig satisfied; better to be Socrates dissatisfied than a fool satisfied. And if the fool, or the pig, are of a different opinion, it is because they only know their own side of the question.”
Mill defines the difference between higher and lower forms of happiness with the principle that those who have experienced both tend to prefer one over the other. This is, perhaps, in direct contrast with Bentham’s statement that “Quantity of pleasure being equal, push-pin is as good as poetry”, that, if a simple child’s game like hopscotch causes more pleasure to more people than a night at the opera house, it is more imperative upon a society to devote more resources to propagating hopscotch than running opera houses. Mill’s argument is that the “simple pleasures” tend to be preferred by people who have no experience with high art, and are therefore not in a proper position to judge. Mill supported legislation that would have granted extra voting power to university graduates on the grounds that they were in a better position to judge what would be best for society. It should be noted that, in this example, Mill did not intend to devalue uneducated people and would certainly have advocated sending the poor but talented to universities: he believed that education, and not the intrinsic nature of the educated, qualified them to have more influence in government.
The qualitative account of happiness that Mill advocates thus sheds light on his account presented in On Liberty. As Mill suggests in that text, utility is to be conceived in relation to mankind “as a progressive being”, which includes the development and exercise of his rational capacities as he strives to achieve a “higher mode of existence”. The rejection of censorship and paternalism is intended to provide the necessary social conditions for the achievement of knowledge and the greatest ability for the greatest number to develop and exercise their deliberative and rational capacities.
‘On Liberty’ Economic philosophy
Mill’s early economic philosophy was one of free markets. However, he accepted interventions in the economy, such as a tax on alcohol, if there were sufficient utilitarian grounds. He also accepted the principle of legislative intervention for the purpose of animal welfare. Mill originally believed that “equality of taxation” meant “equality of sacrifice” and that progressive taxation penalized those who worked harder and saved more and was therefore “a mild form of robbery”.
Given a tax break to the rich, Mill agreed that inheritance should be taxed. A utilitarian society would agree that everyone should be equal one way or another. Therefore receiving inheritance would put one ahead of society unless taxed on the inheritance. Those who donate should consider and choose carefully where their money goes—some charities are more deserving than others. Considering public charities boards such as a government will disperse the money equally. However a private charity board like a church would disperse the monies fairly to those who are in more need than others.
Later he altered his views toward a more socialist bent, adding chapters to his Principles of Political Economy in defense of a socialist outlook, and defending some socialist causes. Within this revised work he also made the radical proposal that the whole wage system be abolished in favour of a co-operative wage system. Nonetheless, some of his views on the idea of flat taxation remained, albeit in a slightly toned down form.
Mill’s Principles of Political Economy, first published in 1848, was one of the most widely read of all books on economics in the period. As Adam Smith’s Wealth of Nations had during an earlier period, Mill’s Principles dominated economics teaching. In the case of Oxford University it was the standard text until 1919. The text that replaced it was written by Cambridge’s Alfred Marshall.
‘On Liberty’ Economic democracy
Mill promoted economic democracy in the capitalist economy whereby labourers would elect members of management. Mill believed that this was necessary to end what he deemed to be dictatorial management of capitalist firms and to establish liberty and equality in the capitalist economy. Mill’s promotion of the right of labourers to elect management has been seen as support for economic corporatism.
Mill demonstrated an early insight into the value of the natural world – in particular in Book IV, chapter VI of “Principles of Political Economy”: “Of the Stationary State” in which Mill recognised wealth beyond the material, and argued that the logical conclusion of unlimited growth was destruction of the environment and a reduced quality of life. He concluded that a stationary state could be preferable to neverending economic growth:
I cannot, therefore, regard the stationary state of capital and wealth with the unaffected aversion so generally manifested towards it by political economists of the old school.
If the earth must lose that great portion of its pleasantness which it owes to things that the unlimited increase of wealth and population would extirpate from it, for the mere purpose of enabling it to support a larger, but not a better or a happier population, I sincerely hope, for the sake of posterity, that they will be content to be stationary, long before necessity compel them to it.
Symbolism in A Doll’s House Ibsen
WHAT IS SYMBOLISM?
Symbolism is literacy device used by prominent playwrights in history of English literature. Keats, Blake, Shelly, O’Neil and Henrik Ibsen used symbolic representation of subject in conventional or unconventional forms. Poet explores mysties through symbolic representation. In this context “ Symbolism Manifesto” was written by (Moreas,1986). Furthermore symbolism, Jane Austin’s pride and prejudice, T.S Eliot’s “The Wast Land” and Ulysses 1992 by James Joyce are the best symbolic works.
Ibsen significantly uses the symbols (symbolism) to represent the identities and ideologies of 19th century. He uses different symbols that relate to not only culture, religion,politics but also that bears the psychological effects indeed. It is unique developed myth of literature that illuminate the hidden facts un utterly. Symbols like door, macron, embroidered dress, tree, and even the title itself is symbolic and influence at the society.
“in theatre image and object, pretense and pretender, sign-vehicle and content, draw usually close”(Bert 1996: 20).
Symbols are the portraits of the illusions and bonds of society, here Ibsen is constructing in form of ‘NORA’ in A Doll’s House. Though Shakespeare plays are beyond to Ibsen age but both uses theatrical symbols even one is Norwegian and other is Englishmen.
IBSEN’S VIEW ABOUT SYMBOLISM
Ibsen himself says’
“to try and give the reader the impression of experiencing a piece of reality”(Ibsen qtd in homer :p.72).
The language, setting and even dress, parties are realistic features shown in symbols. Ibsen portrays the bourgeois features and finedfemininities, ideologies and identities in this drama and believes in the freedom and equality of woman.
Following are the symbols used by the Ibsen
Play open with door in setting, Nora walks towards door is sign of imprisonment of woman of 19th century under the bond of marriage. She seems to be happy but in fact critics peep inside the door and find the femininity (ies) and identities of domesticate woman.
“A room furnished comfortably and tastefully, but not extravagantly. At the back, a door to the right leads to the entrance-hall, an other to the left leads to HELMER:’s study. Between the doors stands a piano. In the middle of the left-hand wall is a door, and beyond it a window. Near the window are a round table, arm-chairs and a small sofa. In the right-hand wall, at the farther end, another door; and on the same side, nearer the footlights, a stove, two easy chairs and a rocking-chair; between the stove and the door, a small table”.(Ibsen, A doll’ s House: 2)
The whole drama is performed inside the room. That also brings the capitalistic perspective of the society. The door opening is actually view of the domestic situation in patriarchal society we find at the dismissal of the relations again the door is in front of Nora to celebrate freedom as earlier she entered in cage created by men
Ibsen provides non verbal feminists clues as Nora’s shawl, macron, tree etc..
“Just now. [Puts the bag of macaroons into her pocket and wipes her mouth.] Come in here, Torvald, and see what I have bought”.(Ibsen, A Dolls House:4)
The self independence is governed by Torveld is depicted by Ibsen. Suffrage movement was one of the central reaction against this male monopoly. Woman was not free physically and oppressed psychologically too. That is why Nora is subordinate creature to Helmer. “She shut the door, she continues to laugh, she takes off her things, she takes a bag of macrons out of her pocket and eats one or two”
In the male dominance the issue of identities and femininities is at the verge of collapse and the gradual intensity of this tyranny make persuade to other sex to rebel and snatch the freedom that was got by Nora at the end of play. She transgendered her identity.
CHRISTMAS TREE’s Symbolism
Christmas tree is symbolic representation of the Nora’s personality. It is decorated as Nora would be on Christmas day and there is a star twinkle top of the tree that represent the hope and ambitions of Nora. The new year that starts from Christmas is symbolic to the feminists movements that give liberty to Nora against the male dominance. Nora is as attractive in multidimensional identity, a mother a daughter , a wife hence she is a pleasing object constructed by Ibsen as religion refers to Christmas.
John Northon argues that,
“the symbols is for the first time, a physical reality on the stage, a mere enough to it suggest actual presence. It is therefore both fact and symbol and from that fusion emerges the closure union of symbolism and reality which makes the play so complexly significant (the wild duck 1884, p.105-06)
SQUIRREL SKYLARK’s Symbolism
“Is that my little lark twittering out there”?(Ibsen, A Doll’s House:5)
Ibsen uses the animated and in animated choices and refers Nora to innocent bird like skylark. The linguistic choices in symbolic representation are patriarchal in nature has Sapirwhorf hypothesis languages is determined by thought and that thought gives strength to male to manipulate and enjoy the power of language Nora is inhibited in Helmer’s house and she is praised by him in metaphoric speech pattern but at the end the same skylark is ready to fly for freedom autonomy
TITLE as Symbolism
The title is in itself a symbolic note describing the femininity and identity of the Victorian society doll is a playful object for everyone and even that is a decoration piece feeling less and emotionless she is a puppet in the hand of Torveld who want to push the strings according to his wish. Nora also apparently functions as commanded doll but in the end of the play writer is succeeded to awake her from subordination and rebel from the male dominance. She is now independent and making her decision according to her will and choice. The last line she uttered is sign of change bringing the equal rights without gender segregation. The whole drama is full with linguistic lexical and symbolic references representing the female of Ibsen’s “A Doll’s house”.
“Yes, yes, it will. But come here and let me show you what I have bought. And all so cheap! Look, here is a new suit for Ivar, and a sword; and a horse and a trumpet for Bob; a doll and dolly’s bedstead for Emmy,—”(Ibsen, A Doll’s House:5)
Toys are the clear picture of thee development of ideology and identity. Nora has bought “a horse and a sword” for her earlier son so that male is initially represented as holder of power and authority while the gifts for Emmy are dolls that is the significant example to build femininity (ies) and masculinity (ies) culturally that is why Emma is gifted by a doll. Ibsen says that a woman of his century is much advanced and womanhood is a socially constructed phenomenon created by men and female writers as symbolism.
Reasons to Relocate: A Therapeutic Approach
Modern technology has made it easy to move from one area to another, and Americans are becoming increasingly mobile in all aspects of their lives. Sometimes, the decision to move is spurred by a personal tragedy, but there are many other valid reasons as well. Companies frequently provide opportunities for employees to transfer, and promotions within organizations are often contingent upon a relocation agreement.
Another reason for relocating relates to personal issues. People often desire the unfamiliar, so it is common for someone in a rural setting to move to a city. Individuals who live in large metropolitan areas may crave the simplicity and quietness of a small town. Job opportunities are the biggest driver of relocation to cities, but self-employment and remote work is also a growing trend. Workers may find the ideal balance between work and life by relocating to a desirable environment while contracting their services remotely to a large company far away.
Personal loss and bereavement also drive people to relocate. Familiar sights and sounds may exacerbate the pain of losing a loved one. Moving may help relieve the deep sense of grief and isolation. Sometimes, the distraction of a new environment reduces the intensity of the pain, but additional steps will increase the likelihood of recovery. For example, nutrition and pain-relieving therapies directly affect the internal feelings of pain. Developing these new skills are invaluable activities. A new exterior environment may reinforce the sense of recovering; however, one approach does not necessarily replace the other, and combining the two has the greatest therapeutic effect.
Therapeutic relocation helps individuals recover from:
• Traumatic Events
• Personal Loss
A growing body of work recognizes numerous therapeutic benefits to be gained from relocation therapy. Each individual responds differently to a given environment, so the therapeutic approach should always take preferences and personality into consideration. For example, people who experience a positive reaction to large bodies of water will benefit by relocating to an area near the ocean; however, others fear the water, and this solution would not have the same effect on them. The context and timing of the relocation is as important as the area itself. Moving too soon may prevent closure, which is a deeply personal event. Ultimately, the decision to move presents an opportunity to grow in new and profound ways. This journey often requires introspection and a deep awareness of the internal realms of consciousness.
This information was written by Ken Torrino, web relations for Elliman, brokers for New York City real estate.
Racial differences have also been the disputed aspect of colonialism. Actually the inhabitants of this world are classified under two categories; the white / red and the black/brown.
In racial, the whites or red are always considered fortunate and belonging to the ruling class. On the other hand, blacks are treated as inferior, misfortunate, mean, vulgar, dishonest and embodiment of evils. All the negative connotations are connected to the black race of the world.
They were discussing as to whether or no it is possible to be friends with an Englishman. Mahmoud Ali argued that it was not, Hamidullah disagreed… ‘I only contend that it is possible in England,’ replied Hamidullah (Forster 1924: 34).
The Indians were disturbed by the attitudes and behaviors of the English people into Racial. Muslims were discussing about their friendships and relationships with the English class the aspect of racial. Aziz asks Mahmoud Ali about the nature of Anglo-Indian friendship. Mahmoud Ali and Aziz disagreed but Hamidullah said that it may be possible in England. In England, the English class makes no prejudice about race or racial differences. Hamidullah was welcomed with open arms when he went at Cambridge. But the English were rulers in India. They considered it foul and unlawful to make friendship with the Indians. If there is friendship between the black and the white, how it will be possible to make distinction between the ruling class and the ruled class.
Hamidullah give an example to argue his point,
It is impossible here. Aziz! The red-nosed boy has again insulted me in court. I do not blame him. He was told that he ought to insult me. Until lately he was quite a nice boy, but the others have got hold of him. ‘Yes, they have no chance here that is my point (Forster 1924: 34).
It is impossible to build relationship and friendship among the Anglo-Indian in India. Hamidullah was very passionate to answer Dr. Aziz’s question. After the name of ‘Aziz, there is the usage of exclamation mark which shows Hamidullah’s feelings. ‘The red-nosed’ boy presents the Western class. A White man insulted Hamidullah in the court. The word ‘again’ shows the repetition. It means that he is insulted by the White man not in a single time. Hamidullah said that he could not react to the humiliated behavior of the red-nosed boy.
Hamidullah remained quiet and calm because he was stranger in England. But the red-nosed boy keeps him to be insulted. At last the boy realized the mysteries of my silence due to which he became a nice boy. But the other Western people kept on taunting the red-nosed boy due to his calmness.
WHAT IS CULTURE?
The concept of culture can be used in different ways. Having several meanings and connotations, it has become the broadest term.
‘Culture’ refers to all those activities and values on which the building of some society is placed. It also covers the intellectual and artistic activities and products of the society. According to some anthropologists, it can be used to describe the best activities and products in the society.
The members of some community share their own feelings, emotions and beliefs with each other under the specifications of certain culture. It also conveys the expressions how people make behaviors, responses and reactions to each other. There are systems or patterns of values, symbols, ritual myths, and practices that are included in culture. It is famous that culture includes norms, values, language, religion, attitude, behavior and social practices. Culture is made through the unification of all those mentioned elements. This world is based on different cultures, but the most prominent cultures are the Western and Eastern in all over the world.
The English and The Indians present their own cultures through their certain actions, norms, beliefs and values. Forster’s ‘A Passage to India’ presents two main cultures; the western and the eastern. But the Eastern is further divided into two cultures; Hinduism and Islam. This research is going to depict the colonial constructions of power belonging to the English, the Hindu and the Muslim cultures.
CULTURE DIFFERENCES IN THE NOVEL
Being the English colony, India was the embodiment of three different cultures; English, Hinduism and Islam. Forster depicts these differences in an appropriate way in his novel. In the second chapter of the novel, when Dr. Aziz goes for dinner at Hamidullah’s home, there is a discussion on the cultural differences across the Anglo-Indians;
No, that is where Mrs. Turton is so skillful. When we poor blacks take bribes, we perform what we are bribed to perform, and the law discovers us in consequence. The English take and do nothing. I admire them (Forster 1924: 34)
Mrs. Turton was bribed by some Raja when she was selected as an inspector for canal scheme. Some people gave her a sewing machine in solid gold so that the water should run through their states. Actually bribery is a social crime due to which several problems get birth. Mrs. Turton was much bribed due to her social status. It is considered unlawful act in Islam. Dr. Aziz talks to Hamidullah that the act of bribery is legitimate near the Christians.
First of all, the Muslims run away from the approaching this social evil. If some Indians or black people have to bribe at the performance of some act, they are charged as black sheep in the whole society. On the other hand they have to face their music. There is no law for the English people at some bribery act. The Englishmen take it as a gift or reward, while the black race is punished very severely on this foul work. Dr. Aziz says that it is the main point to present the admiration of the western people.
Indian culture is recognized through its inhabitants’ customs, values and beliefs. Indian people always spend their leisure in taking hookah and pan. These are the best source to spend the spare time in gossips. In the second chapter Dr. Aziz utters,
If my teeth are to be cleaned, I don’t go at all. I am Indian, it is and Indian habit to take pan (Forster 1924: 38)
Dr. Aziz and Hamidullah were going to start dinner but they were interrupted by some letter from Major Callendar. Actually it was a summon Aziz to come urgently. In the very beginning, Dr. Aziz refuses to visit the civil surgeon. But Hamidullah insisted not to have a refusal. Dr. Aziz is also advised that he should clean up his teeth.
In these given lines, two particular things are mentioned regarding Dr. Aziz’s character. If Dr. Aziz engages himself in cleaning his teeth he will be late. So it shows his punctuality regarding his duties and responsibilities. Second thing is to be proud in having Indian identity. He thinks that it is an Indian habit to take pan. Hence, he needs not to clean his teeth. Hamidullah realizes Dr. Aziz’s punctuality and his cultural arrogance after having some discussion. In the same chapter, Forster further throws light on the Western and the Hindu culture.
One night, over in the Club, the English community contributed an amateur orchestra. Elsewhere some Hindus were drumming-he knew they were Hindus, because the rhythm was uncongenial to him-and others were bewailing a corpse (Forster 1924: 41).
These lines are the presentations of comparison of two cultures. When Dr. Aziz is summoned by Major Callendar and he found no message for him, he went to Mosque. All the English class was busy in doing a play ‘Cousin Kate’ at the club. Dr. Aziz heard an artistic music from the side of club. The English class was enjoying its high status in the India.
Dr. Aziz recognized the Western culture through its presentations. Music is considered fair and accepted action in the Christianity. The Westerns call music the diet for soul. On the other hand Dr. Aziz also heard the beat of drum sitting in the Mosque. He recognized it that these sounds were produced by Hindu culture the rhythm of the drumming was unpleasant and mental torture for Aziz. Dr. Aziz did not like it because it was foul and unlawful act in Islam.
There has been a great religious dispute among the Hindus and the Muslims, in India. Some people were busy in mourning at the corpse. It is also the symbol of Hindu culture. The writer could use here the word ‘mourning’ but he used ‘bewailing’ to emphasize the Hindus feelings at a particular situation.
RONNY AND COLONIALISM
The way to control of other people’s land and goods is colonialism, colonialism is not only the expansion of modern European trend, but it was flourished by the Roman Empire from Armenia to the Atlantic in the second century. Genghis Khan conquered the Middle East including China. In the fifteenth century, southern India came under the rule of the Ottoman Empire, and known as a minor Islamic civilization.
During and after colonialism, India has been the state of different nations having different religions, Hinduism, Sikhism, Islam, Christianity and several other religions but there are two main religions in India: Islam and Hinduism and these two nations have been hostile to each other in every field of life. They have different beliefs and interests. Approaching the month of Mohurram, the Muslims cut the branches off of a certain tree of peepul. The tree of peepul is considered as a sacred tree in Hinduism. It was considered a religious riot at which they fought with each other during colonialism.
India has been the state of different nations having different religions, Hinduism, Sikhism, Islam, Christianity and several other religions. But there are two main religions in India: Islam and Hinduism. These two nations have been hostile to each other in every field of life. They have different beliefs and interests. Approaching the month of Mohurram, the Muslims cut the branches off of a certain tree of peepul. The tree of peepul is considered as a sacred tree in Hinduism. It was considered a religious riot at which they fought with each other in colonialism.
Forster sketches this scene in this way,
But Ronny had not disliked his day, for it proved that the British colonialism was necessary to India, there would certainly have been bloodshed without them. His voice grew complacent again; he was here not to be pleasant but to keep the peace (1924: 110).
The very first line of this extract is based on double negative structure. When such type of structure is used, the speaker’s main aim is to emphasize the point. These lines were uttered by Ronny to Miss Quested after the occurrence of accident. Ronny was so much interested in having the authorities like a ‘pukka sahib’. According to Ronny, the India was controlled by the Britain to keep peace not to please its inhabitants. Ronny was fully in the favor of the British Raj. It is an ironical statement; actually they came in India for the expansion of their trade. Apparently they were admirers of the Indians, but inwardly they were the followers of the racial and class differences.
In chapter 9, Forster further depicts India as a British colony,
Is it fair an Englishman should occupy one when Indians are available?… England holds India for her good (1924: 124).
Miss Quested was much interested to meet the Indians, it was her intimately wish. Mr. Turton held a Bridge Party to meet the keen desire of Miss Quested. At this party, all the Indians were invited. But Dr. Aziz did not take part in that very party. He spent the day at his home in the reminiscent of his wife’s anniversary. He also fell ill; his friends visited him to seek his dispositions. There was a talk run among the companions.
Dr. Aziz asked Mr. Fielding about the British raj (colonialism) why you have found a single patch like India to rule harshly. Fielding told him that he was not personally intended to rule in India. But Fielding needed a job for his survival. There is also racial problem in these lines. Dr. Aziz asks Fielding why the Englishman consider their right to rule over the Indians. Indians were considered very inferior class and race in social, economical and political perspective. Fielding responded to Dr. Aziz that England controlled and ruled India for her own betterment because India had been famous for its treasures in all over the world.
RONNY’S COLONIALISM DISCOURSE
Actually discourse is used as a synonym of conversation, or a serious discussion or examination of a learned topic. Colonial discourse is basically the discussion or conversation which held in the political colonies. Loomba quotes Frantz Fanon’s view of colonial discourse, it is an expansion of the literary and communicative efforts in colonial perspective (1998:46). But Focault declares that colonial discourse presents the power and social structure in the daily talks (Loomba 1998:50). The Britain used several discourses in their daily lives to keep up their ruling status.
There is a talk between Ronny and Mrs. Moore in the fifth chapter,
We are not out here for the purpose of behaving pleasantly! What do you mean?” What I say, we’re the peace. Them’s my sentiments. India is not a drawing-room. Your sentiments are those of a god,’ she said quietly… ‘India likes gods’. ‘And Englishman like posing as gods’ (Forster 1924: 69).
Mrs. Moore and Miss Quested were not satisfied with the Englishmen as they were severely treating the Indians. They condemned Ronny on his harshly behavior towards the Indians. He said that the Britain was trained to adopt the severe attitude. If the ruling class takes the leniency towards the subjects, the subjects will exploit the rules and regulations. According to the English, they are superior to the other nations.
The usage of first person pronoun in plural form ‘We’, shows the subjectivity and the sublimity of the English race. Ronny says that India is a place where the people like the gods and those gods can merely be made and introduced by the Englishmen. If the founders and producers of gods are the Englishmen, the Indians will have to follow their motives and interests. Ronny considers his nation very religious and virtuous.
‘India is not a drawing room’ presents the image of mistreatment and exploitation in the Indian public. The drawing-room is the place to present the peace and calm. According to Ronny himself, it was Britishers’s worthiness to expose their own rest on the behalf of the Indian’s peace. ‘India likes gods’; here India is used as a synecdoche to represent the society. On the other hand the word ‘Englishmen’ is used instead of England. It is a binary structure. According to Foucault, power spreads from top to toe. Power has its own hierarchy for its distribution (Loomba 1998:50).
By: M. Zaman Ali
“Producing smile is the job of man;
My every smile contains Thy name,
Everything that I have is Thy blessing;
And Thou always saved me from blazing.
Thou heal my wounds and take away all my pain,
I never felt me alone due to Thy coalescing;
When I weep and get oppresses,
Thou come like a light and console me as a god friend,
I always feel Thy Hand in my hand;
Thou can never see me stressed,
And always stay me blessed.
Thou never blamed me when I do wrong,
Thou just came and lead me towards the right plan.
Thy love is like an ever burning flame,
That has no ending and is always caressing;
Thou give me name and fame.
Today I am confessing I feel shame,
When I look at thy grants and observe my sinful deeds;
Thou art an absolute Omnipotent Power,
And I am just a seed,
Who beg nothing,just the true flame of Thy Love;
That is beyond everything and is always true.“