Racial Differences in A Passage to India E. M. Forster


Racial differences have also been the disputed aspect of colonialism. Actually the inhabitants of this world are classified under two categories; the white / red and the black/brown.

In racial, the whites or red are always considered fortunate and belonging to the ruling class. On the other hand, blacks are treated as inferior, misfortunate, mean, vulgar, dishonest and embodiment of evils. All the negative connotations are connected to the black race of the world.

They were discussing as to whether or no it is possible to be friends with an Englishman. Mahmoud Ali argued that it was not, Hamidullah disagreed… ‘I only contend that it is possible in England,’ replied Hamidullah (Forster 1924: 34).

The Indians were disturbed by the attitudes and behaviors of the English people into Racial. Muslims were discussing about their friendships and relationships with the English class the aspect of racial. Aziz asks Mahmoud Ali about the nature of Anglo-Indian friendship. Mahmoud Ali and Aziz disagreed but Hamidullah said that it may be possible in England. In England, the English class makes no prejudice about race or racial differences. Hamidullah was welcomed with open arms when he went at Cambridge. But the English were rulers in India. They considered it foul and unlawful to make friendship with the Indians. If there is friendship between the black and the white, how it will be possible to make distinction between the ruling class and the ruled class.

Hamidullah give an example to argue his point,

It is impossible here. Aziz! The red-nosed boy has again insulted me in court. I do not blame him. He was told that he ought to insult me. Until lately he was quite a nice boy, but the others have got hold of him. ‘Yes, they have no chance here that is my point (Forster 1924: 34).

It is impossible to build relationship and friendship among the Anglo-Indian in India. Hamidullah was very passionate to answer Dr. Aziz’s question. After the name of ‘Aziz, there is the usage of exclamation mark which shows Hamidullah’s feelings. ‘The red-nosed’ boy presents the Western class. A White man insulted Hamidullah in the court. The word ‘again’ shows the repetition. It means that he is insulted by the White man not in a single time. Hamidullah said that he could not react to the humiliated behavior of the red-nosed boy.

Hamidullah remained quiet and calm because he was stranger in England. But the red-nosed boy keeps him to be insulted. At last the boy realized the mysteries of my silence due to which he became a nice boy. But the other Western people kept on taunting the red-nosed boy due to his calmness.

Racial Differences in A Passage to India E. M. Forster


Culture in A Passage to India E. M. Forster


The concept of culture can be used in different ways. Having several meanings and connotations, it has become the broadest term.

‘Culture’ refers to all those activities and values on which the building of some society is placed. It also covers the intellectual and artistic activities and products of the society. According to some anthropologists, it can be used to describe the best activities and products in the society.

The members of some community share their own feelings, emotions and beliefs with each other under the specifications of certain culture. It also conveys the expressions how people make behaviors, responses and reactions to each other. There are systems or patterns of values, symbols, ritual myths, and practices that are included in culture. It is famous that culture includes norms, values, language, religion, attitude, behavior and social practices. Culture is made through the unification of all those mentioned elements. This world is based on different cultures, but the most prominent cultures are the Western and Eastern in all over the world.

The English and The Indians present their own cultures through their certain actions, norms, beliefs and values. Forster’s ‘A Passage to India’ presents two main cultures; the western and the eastern. But the Eastern is further divided into two cultures; Hinduism and Islam. This research is going to depict the colonial constructions of power belonging to the English, the Hindu and the Muslim cultures.


Being the English colony, India was the embodiment of three different cultures; English, Hinduism and Islam. Forster depicts these differences in an appropriate way in his novel. In the second chapter of the novel, when Dr. Aziz goes for dinner at Hamidullah’s home, there is a discussion on the cultural differences across the Anglo-Indians;

No, that is where Mrs. Turton is so skillful. When we poor blacks take bribes, we perform what we are bribed to perform, and the law discovers us in consequence. The English take and do nothing. I admire them (Forster 1924: 34)

Mrs. Turton was bribed by some Raja when she was selected as an inspector for canal scheme. Some people gave her a sewing machine in solid gold so that the water should run through their states. Actually bribery is a social crime due to which several problems get birth. Mrs. Turton was much bribed due to her social status. It is considered unlawful act in Islam. Dr. Aziz talks to Hamidullah that the act of bribery is legitimate near the Christians.

First of all, the Muslims run away from the approaching this social evil. If some Indians or black people have to bribe at the performance of some act, they are charged as black sheep in the whole society. On the other hand they have to face their music. There is no law for the English people at some bribery act. The Englishmen take it as a gift or reward, while the black race is punished very severely on this foul work. Dr. Aziz says that it is the main point to present the admiration of the western people.

Indian culture is recognized through its inhabitants’ customs, values and beliefs. Indian people always spend their leisure in taking hookah and pan. These are the best source to spend the spare time in gossips. In the second chapter Dr. Aziz utters,

If my teeth are to be cleaned, I don’t go at all. I am Indian, it is and Indian habit to take pan (Forster 1924: 38)

Dr. Aziz and Hamidullah were going to start dinner but they were interrupted by some letter from Major Callendar. Actually it was a summon Aziz to come urgently. In the very beginning, Dr. Aziz refuses to visit the civil surgeon. But Hamidullah insisted not to have a refusal. Dr. Aziz is also advised that he should clean up his teeth.

In these given lines, two particular things are mentioned regarding Dr. Aziz’s character. If Dr. Aziz engages himself in cleaning his teeth he will be late. So it shows his punctuality regarding his duties and responsibilities. Second thing is to be proud in having Indian identity. He thinks that it is an Indian habit to take pan. Hence, he needs not to clean his teeth. Hamidullah realizes Dr. Aziz’s punctuality and his cultural arrogance after having some discussion. In the same chapter, Forster further throws light on the Western and the Hindu culture.

One night, over in the Club, the English community contributed an amateur orchestra. Elsewhere some Hindus were drumming-he knew they were Hindus, because the rhythm was uncongenial to him-and others were bewailing a corpse (Forster 1924: 41).

These lines are the presentations of comparison of two cultures. When Dr. Aziz is summoned by Major Callendar and he found no message for him, he went to Mosque. All the English class was busy in doing a play ‘Cousin Kate’ at the club. Dr. Aziz heard an artistic music from the side of club. The English class was enjoying its high status in the India.

Dr. Aziz recognized the Western culture through its presentations. Music is considered fair and accepted action in the Christianity. The Westerns call music the diet for soul. On the other hand Dr. Aziz also heard the beat of drum sitting in the Mosque. He recognized it that these sounds were produced by Hindu culture the rhythm of the drumming was unpleasant and mental torture for Aziz. Dr. Aziz did not like it because it was foul and unlawful act in Islam.

There has been a great religious dispute among the Hindus and the Muslims, in India. Some people were busy in mourning at the corpse. It is also the symbol of Hindu culture. The writer could use here the word ‘mourning’ but he used ‘bewailing’ to emphasize the Hindus feelings at a particular situation.

Culture in A Passage to India
A Passage to India (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

Colonialism in A Passage to India E. M. Forster

Colonialism in A Passage to India E. M. Forster
English: Map of the British Indian Empire from Imperial Gazetteer of India (Photo credit: Wikipedia)


The way to control of other people’s land and goods is colonialism, colonialism is not only the expansion of modern European trend, but it was flourished by the Roman Empire from Armenia to the Atlantic in the second century. Genghis Khan conquered the Middle East including China. In the fifteenth century, southern India came under the rule of the Ottoman Empire, and known as a minor Islamic civilization.

During and after colonialism, India has been the state of different nations having different religions, Hinduism, Sikhism, Islam, Christianity and several other religions but there are two main religions in India: Islam and Hinduism and these two nations have been hostile to each other in every field of life. They have different beliefs and interests. Approaching the month of Mohurram, the Muslims cut the branches off of a certain tree of peepul. The tree of peepul is considered as a sacred tree in Hinduism. It was considered a religious riot at which they fought with each other during colonialism.

India has been the state of different nations having different religions, Hinduism, Sikhism, Islam, Christianity and several other religions. But there are two main religions in India: Islam and Hinduism. These two nations have been hostile to each other in every field of life. They have different beliefs and interests. Approaching the month of Mohurram, the Muslims cut the branches off of a certain tree of peepul. The tree of peepul is considered as a sacred tree in Hinduism. It was considered a religious riot at which they fought with each other in colonialism.

Forster sketches this scene in this way,

But Ronny had not disliked his day, for it proved that the British colonialism was necessary to India, there would certainly have been bloodshed without them. His voice grew complacent again; he was here not to be pleasant but to keep the peace (1924: 110).

The very first line of this extract is based on double negative structure. When such type of structure is used, the speaker’s main aim is to emphasize the point. These lines were uttered by Ronny to Miss Quested after the occurrence of accident. Ronny was so much interested in having the authorities like a ‘pukka sahib’. According to Ronny, the India was controlled by the Britain to keep peace not to please its inhabitants. Ronny was fully in the favor of the British Raj. It is an ironical statement; actually they came in India for the expansion of their trade. Apparently they were admirers of the Indians, but inwardly they were the followers of the racial and class differences.

In chapter 9, Forster further depicts India as a British colony,

Is it fair an Englishman should occupy one when Indians are available?… England holds India for her good (1924: 124).

Miss Quested was much interested to meet the Indians, it was her intimately wish. Mr. Turton held a Bridge Party to meet the keen desire of Miss Quested. At this party, all the Indians were invited. But Dr. Aziz did not take part in that very party. He spent the day at his home in the reminiscent of his wife’s anniversary. He also fell ill; his friends visited him to seek his dispositions. There was a talk run among the companions.

Dr. Aziz asked Mr. Fielding about the British raj (colonialism) why you have found a single patch like India to rule harshly. Fielding told him that he was not personally intended to rule in India. But Fielding needed a job for his survival. There is also racial problem in these lines. Dr. Aziz asks Fielding why the Englishman consider their right to rule over the Indians. Indians were considered very inferior class and race in social, economical and political perspective. Fielding responded to Dr. Aziz that England controlled and ruled India for her own betterment because India had been famous for its treasures in all over the world.


Actually discourse is used as a synonym of conversation, or a serious discussion or examination of a learned topic. Colonial discourse is basically the discussion or conversation which held in the political colonies. Loomba quotes Frantz Fanon’s view of colonial discourse, it is an expansion of the literary and communicative efforts in colonial perspective (1998:46). But Focault declares that colonial discourse presents the power and social structure in the daily talks (Loomba 1998:50). The Britain used several discourses in their daily lives to keep up their ruling status.

There is a talk between Ronny and Mrs. Moore in the fifth chapter,

We are not out here for the purpose of behaving pleasantly! What do you mean?” What I say, we’re the peace. Them’s my sentiments. India is not a drawing-room. Your sentiments are those of a god,’ she said quietly… ‘India likes gods’. ‘And Englishman like posing as gods’ (Forster 1924: 69).

Mrs. Moore and Miss Quested were not satisfied with the Englishmen as they were severely treating the Indians. They condemned Ronny on his harshly behavior towards the Indians. He said that the Britain was trained to adopt the severe attitude. If the ruling class takes the leniency towards the subjects, the subjects will exploit the rules and regulations. According to the English, they are superior to the other nations.

The usage of first person pronoun in plural form ‘We’, shows the subjectivity and the sublimity of the English race. Ronny says that India is a place where the people like the gods and those gods can merely be made and introduced by the Englishmen. If the founders and producers of gods are the Englishmen, the Indians will have to follow their motives and interests. Ronny considers his nation very religious and virtuous.

‘India is not a drawing room’ presents the image of mistreatment and exploitation in the Indian public. The drawing-room is the place to present the peace and calm. According to Ronny himself, it was Britishers’s worthiness to expose their own rest on the behalf of the Indian’s peace. ‘India likes gods’; here India is used as a synecdoche to represent the society. On the other hand the word ‘Englishmen’ is used instead of England. It is a binary structure. According to Foucault, power spreads from top to toe. Power has its own hierarchy for its distribution (Loomba 1998:50).

By: M. Zaman Ali


Hugh Maclennan’s Two Solitudes Critical Analysis

Hugh Maclennan’s Two Solitudes Critical Analysis

Two Solitudes creates much examining in two respects: first, it throws light on MacLennan’s lifestyle and fictional growth, and second, it comes to holders with the lifestyle and record of two terminology and spiritual areas in Canada. In all of his books, MacLennan tries to know what creates a Canada, but he does so without hazarding any early details or concocting any limiting descriptions. His figures, such as the ones in Two Solitudes, are of combined origins. What is an English Canadian? What French Canadians are? Even though the French-Canadian Paul Tallard was born in a town that was, to all looks, shut to outside impacts, his mom is Irish. And the mom and father of the English-Canadian figures are of English origins. In Canada, the English-speaking Canada statements either Scottish or Irish origins. He came here not with overcoming military, but later in a hold of immigration law. He came not to claim an Imperial hegemony, but to cut his former nationwide identification without, however, renouncing his origins.

Place of English-speaking Canadians in Two Solitudes

English-speaking Canadians are not conquerors and they have dissociated themselves from the latest symptoms of imperialistic styles on the aspect of their others who live nearby to the southern region. They have stayed trustworthy to their local origins, and to their belief. Their rejection to be colonials has remaining its mark on this new nation, and their genuine perspective loses interest no features of any philosophy disguised as prestigious advantage. These Canadians have espoused the cause of personal independence, an independence that looks for to evolve itself to issues within group.

In it is time; Two Solitudes was a novel of excellent conventional value. How do you find successful get in touch with the other and keep as well what is most unusual about you? How do you evade privacy without encroaching on the privacy of the other? This freedom, to be able to claim itself and endure, mitigates the issues group enforces on it. Moreover in Two Solitudes, this freedom leads to in a significant bay to organization of a group that both defends and increases the lifestyle within an extensive environment-a group whose durability can be found accurately in its versatility and its potential to evolve. A group whose significant typical is brilliant pragmatism, if not wiseness.

The Role of Great Britain in Two Solitudes

MacLennan researched all the opportunities of such a civilization. In discourses on the origins of this group, he refers to Great England, whose people Liked freedom to the level of getting up hands in its protection. He further refers to the U. S. Declares, which has been split by inner dissension, but whose people are nevertheless able of seeking the same goals regardless of their ideological variations, and regardless of their divergent views about how area should be designed.

The first hurdle is not terminology but belief. MacLennan has his idol enhance to the level of transformation, for that is what creates the novel a real expression of its period-a interval as opposed to present-day, which is noticeable by apathy and neutrality, and which gladly can enhance a luxurious perspective.

Today, Catholics and Protestants no more have to cut their conventional beliefs. They no more need to Keep their particular Chapels to be able to come together in a group that would find both their independence and their distinctiveness, and that would create these the base for solidarity, for a way of residing that is, if not public, then at least good.

Two Solitudes is a conventional paper. In it, MacLennan faces us with the perspective of an Anglophone new to Quebec, Canada,. He shares of his own group, of his growth, of the francophone group, of his antagonism towards it, and of his last getting back together with it. If only so, Two Solitudes would be a value. And examining it, indeed re-reading it, would be of inestimable value these days.

But this novel gives us even more. First, it obliges people to find and accept a concept of privacy which has nothing to do with the wish to separate yourself and neglect the other, or to decline group. The privacy described by MacLennan is a concept of individual’s independence within his own group, an independence he maintains in his regards to the other and in his popularity of the change between them. It is the cost to be compensated for reaching and protecting independence. And it is not an excessive one. We discover there the substances of a Protestant ethos, verging indeed on a Puritan one, which should be used with threshold and the wish of pleasure. Isolation such as this becomes a situation for, and not a hurdle to, conference with the other: attaining out to him, getting in touch with him. And realizing him, to be able to welcome him with his differences and variations.

Undeniably, really like is the aspect that provides the durability, gives the will, and holds together the different components. There is no concern here of combining different facts with the aim of removing the separateness: the goal is rather to restore everyday and without stop, and to advertise getting back together instead of control and cure.

Today, Two Solitudes does not seem to be entrance of failing, but rather the concept of a wish that MacLennan, were he still with us, would want to consider as prophetic. I can still image him with his passionate grin, tinged with unhappiness, paradox, and, most of all, anticipations. Was his perspective a prophetic one? Could it have come from one who was so direct, so pragmatic, so realistic, and, preeminently, so modest? My reason is this: his anticipations was no simple wish. I would claim rather that if there was a wish, it was one that took appearance of a task, a task that was suitable for the man.

MacLennan would Say that despite the contradictions, the issues, and the obstructions, Canada can still offer an example of a group in which two solitudes do not type issue or even apathy, but represent instead a situation and a chance for arriving together.


Two Solitudes Summary

Two Solitudes Summary Chapter 1-10

Chapter 1: Northwest of Montreal, through a valley always in sight of the low mountains of the Laurentian Shield, the Ottawa River flows out of Protestant Ontario in to Catholic Quebec. where is joins the St. Lawrence, farmland stretches in two narrow bands on both shores. But where the two rivers meet, at Montreal, two old races and religions meet and live their separate legends, side by side as two solitudes.

Chapter 2: One Saturday in October, 1917, Father Emile Beaubien, the parish priest of Saint-Marc-des-Erables, walked back and forth on the porch of his red brick presbytery, contemplating his blessings. The earlier Sunday the new parish church, the largest within miles, had been consecrated by the bishop. This year’s harvest was bountiful, and, owing to the war, farm prices had never been better.

Chapter 3: Protagonist of Two Solitudes, Athanase Tallard, tall, dark, aristocratic, with a large white moustache, his movements quick with nervous vitality, showed his guests in to the library of his home. Beside him was Huntly McQueen, about 40 years old, a bachelor and a great churchgoers, who was rapidly becoming one of the richest men in Canada. The third man, John Yardley, was a retired sea-captain from Nova Scotia. He was Tallard’s age, almost 60, lean and muscat, with twinkling blue eyes. His artificial leg made him limp heavily. Yardley had wanted to inspect the Dansereau farm, and had already made up his mind to buy it.

Chapter 4: In chapter 4 of Two Solitudes, After the weekend, Tallard returned to Ottawa, where he found himself unpopular with the other Quebec members of Parliament because of his support for conscription. Canadian troops under a British commander-in-chief were dying in the mud before Passchendaele. Athanase felt as if the British had let him down personally. No wonder the French-Canadian press roared against conscription. The night the wind blew cold from the Northwest, toward evening the air was flecked with a scud of white specks and it was the beginning of winter.

Chapter 5: Two Solitudes’ other main character, Marius Tallard stood in his father’s library, looking out over the white fields. Because his family had bead rooted here since the first settlements, he felt that all he could see was a part of himself. In the library, Kathleen told Yardley that she believed Marius’ trouble came from ” something away back that he holds against his father. I wish I knew what it was It’s a shame for him to be so unhappy.”

Chapter 6: Marius stood on the platform of a dirty hall in the east end of Montreal, addressing an anti-conscription meeting. Though the was not a practiced speaker and there was nothing new in his message, his pent-up unhappiness burst forth and moved his audience. Drunk with a new knowledge of himself, he pulled emotion out of the crowd and threw it back at them.

Chapter 7: Two Solitudes leading character, As Paul Tallard walked down to the general store on a Saturday morning, he observed many signs of spring geese flying north, the land emerging brown and wet from the snow, crows pecking in the old furrows. He did not like to think of spring, however, because ir reminded him of Holy Week and crucifixion of Christ. He thought instead of autumn, when crimson maple leaves circled silently down from trees and floated in still pools.

Chapter 8: In chapter 8 of Two Solitudes, On the train from Ottawa to Montreal, surrounded by politicians and business, Athanase Tallard was reading two newspapers, one in French from Montreal, the other in English from Toronto. Editorials in each condemned him, for his stand on conscription, He closed his eyes and tried to sleep, but thoughts swirled in his mind. HIs political life was a failure. His stand on the war had done no one any good. It had merely destroys all the pleasures of the old days, the work that filled them. He remembered how he used to enjoy food and drink, how he and Kathleen had gone to horse races and hockey games in 8th chapter of Two Solitudes.

Chapter 9: In 9th chapter of Two Solitudes, The next morning, Athanase decided to begin the real writing of the book on religion that he had planned for six years. The first sentences wrote themselves: to relieve his fear of the dark, mankind invents a system of beliefs. Among primitive tribes, these are called superstitions. Among civilized nations, they are known as religions. God, therefore, is mankind’s most original invention, greater even than the wheel.

Chapter 10: Setting out for the sugar house in the maple grove up the hill, Athanase and Paul met Blanchard in the upper field, at the end of which stood the cottage where he lived with his wife and seven children. To reward him for his years of faithful service, Athanase proposed to make over this field to Blanchard for a token payment. Blanchard makde no reply, and his lined brown face continued to brood over the land. Athanase felt the communicon close between his man and himself. It made the world seem worthwhile.

Two Solitudes Summary Chapter 11-20

Chapter 11: In Two Solitudes’, As Huntly McQueen stepped into the elevator of the bank building on Saint James Street, he was struck by the thought that, if a fatal accident occurred now, half a million men would have lost their masters. The men who surrounded him were the economic giants of Canada: Sir Rupert Irons, who collected enterprises as other men collected stamps; McIntosh, who controlled three metal mines, two chemical factories and had various international interests; Masterman, of Minto Power; Chislet, nickel, copper and coal. They were Presbyterians to a man, they went to church regularly, and Irons was known to believe quite literally in predestination.
Chapter 12: Kathleen found a house in Montreal that she thought Athanase would like. Though most of the neighbors were English-speaking, and the restrict vaguely reminiscent of London, it stood only a little west of Bleury Street, which divides the English from the French half of the city as the significant theme of Two Solitudes.

Chapter 13: Athanase spared half an hour to look at the new house, and the lease was signed. The rest of the time had been spent with McQueen. He had converted his bonds into company stock and would arrange for a mortgage on his property in Saint-Marc. Financial control and management would be in Montreal; the technical managers would live in Saint-Marc.

Chapter 14: As spring leaped into full summer, Yarley’s farm was doing well, and he was preparing for the visit of his daughter and his two granddaughters. Athanase worried about Marius, from whom nothing had been heard since spring. Father Beaubien worried, too, about the problem of Tallard’s attitude toward the church, and the proposed factory. Though the priest was aware that his background and education had not equipped him to deal with a man such as Tallard, he paid a call, saying he wanted to talk about Marius. He said that, if Marius were taken for the army, it would mean a horrible life among unbelievers, and would be all his father’s fault because of the enmity between them.

Chapter 15: Early in July, Janet Methuen, standing in Poly-carp Drouin’s store, received an official letter announcing the death of her husband. She fell on the bed, her whole body racked by dry shaking sobs. Her father came in, uncrumpled the letter on the bed beside her, then took her in his arms. She did not want to look at him.

Chapter 16:  In 16th chapter of Two Solitudes, The country had now been four years at war, and names such as Ypres, Vimy, Cambrai, Arras and the Somme had become as familiar as Fredericton, Moose Jaw, Sudbury or Prince Rupert. Perhaps in Quebec the serene permanence of the river itself helped to confirm the people in their sureness that the war was a product of English-American big business. And, besides, there was the matter of faith all through the Laurentian country. Thousands of parish priests , seminary students and members of religious orders worked on in the unbroken tradition of the Middle Ages.

Chapter 17: In August, financial arrangements for the power dam were completed, and Tallard received word from Ottawa that the government would build a railway spur as soon as foundation of the factory was laid. He had calculated the political side of the project perfectly, as McQueen had expected. The government had no wish to see him lose his seat, and the railway spur would be put down to his credit in the next election.

Chapter 18: Marius Tallard was waiting in the Montreal station for a train to Saint-Marc, eating a sandwich what Emilie had brought him. Emilie sensed that Marius was frightened. As he boarded the train, he stopped, looking irresolute, almost pitiful. He bent and kissed her fiercely, without affection. Emilie walked slowly back to the concourse. She decided to give her savings of seven dollars to the church and pray to the Virgin to make Marius kinder and happy.

Chapter 19: In 19th chapter of Two Solitudes, Paul got up before dawn, dressed quietly and walked to Yardley’s house, where the captain and his granddaughters Daphne and Heather, were having breakfast before going fishing. Daohne was sleepy and red-eyed. Paul wondered if she had cried on account of her father. Yardley got into the boat to skull at the stern, the girls sat in the middle, and Paul shoved off. By sunrise, Paul and Heather had caught two fish each but the captain had four for him. Daphne had not taken any, though she had lost two.

chapter 20: Father Beaubien had not slept all night. Marius had come after dark, and, after several hours’ talk, the priest had given him a bed in his spare room. The priest prayed for the soul of Athanase Tallard and for Marius because of his bitterness. Finally, he prayed for himself, asking for grace and wisdom to protect the parish. Then he called on Tallard.

Two Solitudes Summary Chapter 21-30

Chapter 21: That same afternoon in Two Solitudes’ chapter 21, Paul worked hard with Blanchard hoeing potatoes. He had moved into Marius’ room the week before and now he lay awake looking at Marius’ sport equipment and the little altar. his mother came in , carrying the cat, and stayed until he fell asleep. In a dream, he saw a vision in the sky of Christ crucified, and two soldiers fighting. The soldiers were his father and Marius. In his dream, he looked up and the eyes of Christ rolled. Then he awoke to find Marius’ hand clamped on his mouth. Lighting a lamp, Marius undressed quickly. Paul noticed how thin he had become.

Chapter 22: Marius sat on a log outside the sugar cabin and smoked his pipe, listening to the sounds of the night. He looked down through the trees at the fields pale with moonlight, and beyond the parish spread below him like a map. The peace and familiarity of the scene eased the soreness caused by three months of worry and scheming. He had never wished to have this hatred in his life, this battle he was doomed to wage. He remembered the words of his father’s note.

Chapter 23: The next morning, the whole parish knew that Marius had been arrested. At the store, gossip was rife as usual. At noon, Father Beaubien met Athanase Tallard coming for his mail. He swung round and brought the whip down on his horse’s flank.

Chapter 24: Late that afternoon in chapter 24 of Two Solitudes, John Yardley returned from the village and went directly to his daughter’s room, where he found her reading a story in THE SATURDAY EVENING POST. She looked old and withered in her black mourning clothes. He demands to know whether she had told the policemen where the Tallard boy was.

Chapter 25: Paul and his father were going to Montreal on the train. At home, everything had been upset, his mother crying, his father shouting. He felt there had been a disaster. At last, Athanase laid down his newspaper and tried to speak reassuringly. Paul pointed out that Marius didn’t want to be a soldier. Realizing that Paul did not understand, he explained that there many churches in the world.

Chapter 26: During the next week, while Athanase remained in Montreal, Kathleen and Paul found that the villagers shunned them, and most refused to speak to them. On night, a stone was thrown through a window. On the second Sunday, when Kathleen went to Mass as usual, she found the Tallard pew occupied by another family.

Chapter 27: Tow Solitudes’ chapter 27, The war had been over for six months, and now the first battalions were coming home. The old familiar sights and smells of Canada seemed good to them just because they were familiar. They saw, as if for the first time, how empty the country looked, how silent it was. As they paraded through the streets of Montreal, they were returning to the human race. The war was becoming what their minds made it, slipping back into pictures, almost into the same pictures the civilians and advertisers made of it.

Chapter 28: After three years at Frobisher School, Paul had become Anglicized, a natural boxer and a good hockey player. The school was run like an English prep school and the masters, mostly young Englishmen, were people, agreeing in little except the danger of proximity of United States culture, from which they tried unsuccessfully to shield their students.

Chapter 29: The time of day had no meaning for Athanase. He laid in his bed listening, as if from a great distance, to the rattle of his own breathing. He had a heart attack. As Kathleen laid her hand on his forehead, he struggled to speak, and finally managed to utter Paul’s name.

Chapter 30: After the death of Athanase, Kathleen moved out of their large house and, taking Paul with her, she rented a small apartment. She had no choice in the matter, for Athanase had died bankrupt, the mortgage on the house and land at Saint-Marc had been foreclosed, and some of the furniture of the town house had been sold to pay off debts. Although there was still a lot of furniture left, only the books had been carefully selected by Yardley for Paul’s future benefit. One of them, about the siege of Troy, interested Paul greatly, for he had fallen under the spell of Homeric Greece in the last part of Two Solitudes.


To the Lighthouse Characters List

To the Lighthouse Major Characters

Mrs. Ramsay – Mr. Ramsay’s spouse. An amazing and adoring woman, Mrs. Ramsay is an amazing coordinator who requires satisfaction for creating unforgettable encounters for the visitors at the loved one’s summer time house on the Region of Skye. Re-inifocing conventional sex tasks completely, she lavishes particular interest on her men visitors, who she considers have sensitive moi and need continuous help and consideration. She is a dutiful and adoring spouse but often battles with her spouse’s challenging emotions and self-centeredness. Without fall short, however, she triumphs through these hardships and shows a ability to create something much and long-lasting from the most ephemeral of conditions, such as a celebration in To the Lighthouse.
Read an in-depth research of Mrs. Ramsay.

Mr. Ramsay – Mrs. Ramsay’s partner, and a well-known transcendental thinker in To the Lighthouse. Mr. Ramsay likes his household but often functions like something of a tyrant. He tends to be self-centered and severe due to his chronic personal and expert stresses. He concerns, more than anything, that his do is minor in the huge general program of elements and that he will not be recalled by years to come. Well conscious of how endowed he is to have such an amazing household, he nevertheless tends to discipline his spouse, kids, and visitors by strenuous their continuous consideration, interest, and help.
Read an in-depth research of Mr. Ramsay.

Lily Briscoe – A youthful, individual artist who befriends the Ramsays on the Region of Skye. Like Mr. Ramsay, Lily is affected by concerns that her doing does not have value. She starts a symbol of Mrs. Ramsay at the starting of the novel but has problems completing it. The views of men like Charles Tansley, who asserts that women cannot colour or create, jeopardize to challenge her assurance as special women of To the Lighthouse.
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James Ramsay – The Ramsays’ little son and soul of novel To the Lighthouse. James likes his mom greatly and seems a murderous antipathy toward his dad, with whom he must contend for Mrs. Ramsay’s really like and devotion. At the starting of the novel, Mr. Ramsay declines the six-year-old James’s ask for to go to the lighthouse, saying that the elements will be nasty and not allow it; ten decades later, James lastly creates the voyage with his dad and his sis Cam. By now, he has expanded into an obstinate and irritable youthful man who has much in typical with his dad, whom he detests.
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To the Lighthouse Minor Characters

Paul Rayley – A youthful companion of the Ramsays who trips them on the Region of Skye. John is a type, impressionable youthful man who follows Mrs. Ramsay’s desires in getting married to Minta Doyle.

Minta Doyle – A flighty youthful woman who trips the Ramsays on the Region of Skye. Minta marries John Rayley at Mrs. Ramsay’s desires.

Charles Tansley – A youthful thinker and scholar of Mr. Ramsay who continues to be with the Ramsays on the Region of Skye. Tansley is a ticklish and distressing man who ports deeply worries about his respectful qualifications. He often insults other people, particularly women such as Lily, whose ability and success he regularly calling into concern. His bad conduct, like Mr. Ramsay’s, is inspired by his need for support.

William Bankes – A botanist and old companion of the Ramsays who continues to be on the Region of Skye. Bankes is a type and calm man whom Mrs. Ramsay desires will get married to Lily Briscoe. Although he never marries her, Bankes and Lily stay acquaintances.

Augustus Carmichael – An opium-using poet who trips the Ramsays on the Region of Skye. Carmichael languishes in fictional obscurity until his passage becomes well-known during the war.

Andrew Ramsay – The most well-known of the Ramsays’ kids. Phil is a qualified, separate youthful man, and he looks ahead to a profession as a math wizard.

Jasper Ramsay – One of the Ramsays’ kids. Jasper, to his woman’s chagrin, loves capturing wild birds.

Roger Ramsay – One of the Ramsays’ kids. Mark is outrageous and daring, like his sis Nancy.

Prue Ramsay – The most well-known Ramsay young woman, an amazing youthful woman. Mrs. Ramsay pleasures in thinking about Prue’s wedding, which she considers will be relaxing.

Rose Ramsay – One of the Ramsays’ kids. Increased has a capability to create elements amazing. She sets up the fruit for her woman’s celebration and choices out her woman’s bracelets.

Nancy Ramsay – One of the Ramsays’ kids. Nancy comes with John Rayley and Minta Doyle on their journey to the seaside. Like her sibling Mark, she is an outrageous explorer.

Cam Ramsay – One of the Ramsays’ kids. As a little girl, Cam is naughty. She sails with Wayne and Mr. Ramsay to the lighthouse in  last chapter of novel To the Lighthouse.

To the Lighthouse Other Characters

Mrs. McNab – An seniors woman who covers the Ramsays’ house on the Region of Skye, reestablishing it after ten decades of desertion during and after World-War I.

Macalister – The anglers who comes with the Ramsays to the lighthouse. Macalister associates testimonies of shipwreck and historic experience to Mr. Ramsay and enhances Wayne on his managing of the vessel while Wayne areas it at the lighthouse.

Macalister’s boy – The fisherman’s boy. He lines Wayne, Cam, and Mr. Ramsay to the lighthouse.


To the Lighthouse Summary

TO the Lighthouse Summary

Note: To the Lighthouse is separated into three sections: “The Window,” “Time Passes,” and “The Lighthouse.” Each area is fragmented into stream-of-consciousness advantages from various narrators.

In Novel To the Lighthouse, “The Window” reveals just before the begin of  W-War I. Mr. Ramsay and Mrs. Ramsay carry their eight kids to their summer time house in the Hebrides (a list of destinations western of Scotland). Across the bay from their house appears a huge lighthouse. Six-year-old James Ramsay wants seriously to go to the lighthouse, and Mrs. Ramsay informs him that they will go the next day if the weather allows. James responds gleefully, but Mr. Ramsay informs him coldly that the Weather looks to be nasty. James resents his dad and considers that he loves being terrible to James and his family.
The Ramsays hosts a variety of visitors, such as the dour Charles Tansley, who admires Mr. Ramsay’s perform as a transcendental thinker. Also at the property is Lily Briscoe, a youthful artist who starts a picture as painting of Mrs. Ramsay. Mrs. Ramsay wants Lily to get married to William Bankes, an old companion of the Ramsay’s, but Lily curbs to stay unmarried. Mrs. Ramsay does handle to organize another wedding, however, between Paul Rayley and Minta Doyle, two of their associates.

During the advancement, of afternoon, Paul ask to Minta for marriage, Lily starts her artwork (painting), Mrs. Ramsay reduces the exacerbated James, and Mr. Ramsay frets over his disadvantages as a thinker, regularly transforming to Mrs. Ramsay for relaxation. That night, the Ramsays get-together an apparently ill-fated celebration. Paul and Minta are overdue coming back from their move on the seaside with two of the Ramsay’s’ kids. Lily bristles at open feedback given by Charles Tansley, who indicates that female can neither colour nor create as artwork. Mr. Ramsay responds rudely when Augustus Carmichael, a poet, demands a second menu of broth. As the night attracts on, however, these problems right themselves, and the visitors come together to create an unforgettable night.

The joy, however, like the celebration itself, cannot last, and as Mrs. Ramsay results in her visitors in the evening meal area, she shows that the occurrence has already lowered into the last. Later, she connects her partner in the shop. The several rests silently together, until Mr. Ramsay’s typical worries stop their serenity. He wants his spouse to tell him that she likes him. Mrs. Ramsay is not one to create such pronouncements, but she concedes to his reason created before in the day that the weather will be too difficult for a journey to the lighthouse the next day. Mr. Ramsay thus knows that Mrs. Ramsay likes him. Night comes, and one night easily becomes another.

TO the Lighthouse Time Section

Time passes more easily as the novel To the Lighthouse goes into the “Time Passes” section. War smashes out across European countries. Mrs. Ramsay dies instantly one night. Andrew Ramsay, her most well-known son, is died in battlefield, and his sis Prue dies from a sickness relevant to the birth. The household no more holidays at its summer-house, which comes into condition of disrepair: fresh mushrooms take over the lawn and spiders colony in the property. Ten decades finish before the household comeback. Mrs. McNab, the maid, uses a few other women to help set the property to be able to live. They save the property from oblivion and corrosion, and everything is to be able to live when Lily Briscoe comeback to house.

TO the Lighthouse “The Lighthouse” Section

In novel To the Lighthouse,  “The Lighthouse” section, time comebacks to the slowly details of moving opinions, same in design to “The Window.” Mr. Ramsay states that he and James and Cam, one of his girls, will voyage to the lighthouse. On the day of the voyage, setbacks toss him into a fit of mood. He attracts Lily for consideration, but, as opposed to Mrs. Ramsay, she is incapable to offer him with what he needs. The Ramsays set off, and Lily requires her place on the lawn, established to finish an artwork (painting) she began but discontinued on her last visit here. James and Cam bristle at their dad’s windy conduct and humiliated by his continuous self-pity. Still, as the vessel gets to its place, the kids experience a liking for him. Even James, whose ability as a sailor man Mr. Ramsay good remarks, encounters a second of relationship with his dad, though James so wilfully resents him.At the end of To The Lighthouse, Across the bay, Lily places the of entirety on her artwork (painting). She creates a specified action on the fabric and places her sweep down, lastly having obtained her perspective at the end of To the Lighthouse.


To the Lighthouse Context

To the Lighthouse By Virginia Woolf

The Writer Of Ti the Lighthouse, Virginia Woolf was born on Jan 25, 1882, an enfant , one of Victorian England’s most popular imaginary family members. Sir Leslie Stephen, the author of the “Dictionary of National Biography” was her father and committed to the girl of the author William Thackeray. Woolf matured up among the most essential and powerful English intellectuals of her time, and obtained free control to discover her father’s collection. Her personal connections and many ability soon started out gates for her. Woolf wrote that she discovered herself in “a position where it was easier to be prestigious than unknown.” Almost from the beginning, her lifestyle was an unsafe balance of outstanding success and psychological uncertainty as in To the Lighthouse.

To the Lighthouse Introduction

As a young woman, Woolf wrote for the popular Times Literary Complement, and as a mature she quickly discovered herself at the center of England’s most essential imaginary group. Known as the “ Blooms-bury Group” after the area of London, UK where its members resided, this list of authors, performers, and philosophers highlighted nonconformity, visual satisfaction, and perceptive independence, and involved such luminaries as the artist Lytton Strachey, the author E. M. Forster, the musician Benjamin Britten, and the economist John Maynard Keynes. Working among such a motivating list of colleagues and owning an amazing ability in her own right, Woolf released her most popular books by the mid-1920s, such as The Voyage Out, Mrs. Dalloway, Orlando, and To the Lighthouse. With these performs she achieved the epitome of her occupation.

Woolf’s lifestyle was similarly covered with psychological sickness. Her mom and dad passed away when she was young—her mom in 1895 and her dad in 1904—and she was vulnerable to extreme, dreadful complications and psychological failures. After her dad’s loss of life, she tried destruction, putting herself out a window. Though she committed Leonard Woolf in 1912 and liked him greatly, she was not entirely fulfilled passionately or intimately. For decades she continual connection with the author Vita Sackville-West. Overdue in lifestyle, Woolf became afraid by the concept that another anxious malfunction was available, one from which she would not restore. On April 28, 1941, she wrote her partner a observe revealing that she did not wish to mess up his lifestyle by going mad. She then perished herself in the River Ouse.

Like To The Lighthouse, Woolf’s composing holds the level of her imaginary reputation as well as her battle to discover significance in her own unsteady everyday living. Written in a set, moderate, and stylish design, her work investigates the components of personal lifestyle, from the characteristics of connections to experience of your energy and energy and effort. Yet her composing also details issues to her era and imaginary group. Throughout her work she honors and investigates the Blooms-bury principles of aestheticism, feminism, and flexibility(independence). Moreover, her stream-of-consciousness design was affected by, and addressed, the work of the People from France thinker Henri Bergson and the writers Marcel Proust and James Joyce as well.

To the Lighthouse & Other Notable Works

This design(style) allows the very subjective psychological ways of Woolf’s characters to figure out the purpose content of her story. In To the Lighthouse (1927), one of her most trial works, the passing of energy and effort, such as, is modulated by awareness of the characters than by time. The activities of a single mid-day represent over half the book, while the activities of the following ten decades are compacted into a few number of pages. Many readers of To the Lighthouse, especially those who are not experienced in the customs of modernist stories, look for the novel unusual and difficult. Its language is heavy and the framework amorphous. In contrast to the plot-driven Victorian books that came before it, To the Lighthouse seems to have little in the way of action. Indeed, almost all the activities take place in the characters’ thoughts.

Although To the Lighthouse is an extreme leaving from the nineteenth-century novel, it is, like its more conventional alternatives, very well interested in creating characters and improving both plot and themes as well style. Woolf’s analysis has much to do with plenty of period in which she lived: the turn of the millennium was noticeable by strong medical improvements. Charles Darwin’s concept of progress (theory of evolution) weakened an unquestioned trust in God that was, until that point, nearly worldwide, while the increase of psychoanalysis, an activity led by Sigmund Freud, presented the concept of a subconscious mind. Such advancement in ways of scientific thinking had great effect on the designs(styles) and issues of modern performers and authors like those in the Blooms-bury Team. To the Lighthouse indicates Woolf’s style and many of her issues as an author. With its characters based on her own mother and dad and friends, it is certainly her most autobiographical imaginary declaration, and in the characters of Mr. Ramsay, Mrs. Ramsay, and Lily Briscoe, Woolf offers some of her most breaking through search operation of the person’s awareness as it thinks and investigates, seems and communicates. (To The Lighthouse).


The Catcher in the Rye Context

The Catcher in the Rye By Salinger

Jerome David Salinger was born in New York 1919. The son of a rich mozzarella dairy product importer, Salinger matured up in a modern community in Manhattan and used his youthful technology being shuttled between various prepare schools before his mom and dad lastly completed on the Valley Forge Military School in 1934. He finished from Valley Forge in 1936 and signed up with a variety of colleges, such as Columbia University for Higher education, but did not grad from any of them. While at Columbia, Salinger took an innovative composing category in which he did, cementing the interest in composing that he had managed since his puberty. Salinger had his first shorter story published in 1940; he ongoing to create as he signed up with the Army and conducted in Europe during World War II. Upon his come back to the U.S. and private life in 1946; Salinger authored more stories, creating them in many well known magazines. In 1951, Salinger released his only full-length novel, The Catcher in the Rye, which powered him onto the nationwide level.

The Catcher in the Rye Introduction

Many activities from Salinger’s youthful life appear in The Catcher in the Rye. For example, Holden Caulfield goes from school to school, is confronted with military school, and knows a mature Columbia student. In the novel The Catcher in the Rye, such autobiographical information is adopted into a post–World War II establishing. The Catcher in the Rye was released at a time when the growing National business economic climate created the country effective and created social guidelines provided as a value of submission for the youthful generation. Because Salinger used jargon and profanity in his textual content and because he mentioned young libido in a complicated and open way, many readers were hurt, and The Catcher in the Rye triggered excellent debate upon its launch. Some critics recommended that the publication was not serious fantastic literature works, stating its informal and relaxed develop as proof. The publication was—and constantly is—banned in some areas, and it consequently has been tossed into the middle of debate about First Amendment privileges, censorship, and obscenity in fantastic literature works.

Though debatable, the novel The Catcher in the Rye becomes a huge hit to numerous individuals. It was a greatly popular top seller and common significant success. Salinger’s composing seemed to tap into the feelings of reader in an unrivaled way. As countercultural rebel started to develop during the19 50’s and Sixties, The Catcher in the Rye was frequently study as a story of your drawback within a heartless world. Holden seemed to take a position for youthful generation everywhere, which sensed them beset on every side by demands to mature and live their life according to the guidelines, to disengage from significant human network, and to prohibit their own individualities and comply with a plain social standard. Many audiences saw Holden Caulfield as an icon of genuine, unfettered personality in the face of social oppression.

The Catcher in the Rye & Other Notable Works

In the same year that The Catcher in the Rye showed up, Salinger released a short story in The New Yorker journal known as “A Perfect Day for Bananafish,” which becomes the first in a sequence of testimonies about the fictional Glass family. Over the next several years, other “Glass” stories showed up in the same magazine: “Franny,” “Zooey,” and “Raise High the Roof-Beam, Carpenters.” These and other stories are available in the only other books Salinger released besides The Catcher in the Rye: Nine Stories (1953), Franny and Zooey (1961), and Raise High the Roof-Beam, Carpenters and Seymour: An Introduction (1963). Though Nine Stories obtained some significant recognition, the significant part of the later stories was dangerous. Critics generally found the Glass friends to be extremely and insufferably bright and judgmental.

Beginning in the starting Sixties, as his significant popularity ceased, Salinger started to post less and to disengage from world. In 1965, after creating another Glass story (“Hapworth 26, 1924”) that was extensively reviled by critics, he withdrew almost completely from community life, a position he has managed up to the present. This reclusiveness, surprisingly, created Salinger even more well-known, changing him into a conspiracy determine. To some level, Salinger’s conspiracy position has overshadowed, or at least tinged, many readers’ thoughts of his function. As a recluse, Salinger, for many, embodied much the same mindset as his bright, injured individuals, and many reader’s perspective writer and individuals as the same being. Such a examining of Salinger’s function clearly oversimplifies the process of stories composing and the connection between the writer and his designs. But, given Salinger’s iconoclastic conduct, the common perspective that Salinger was himself a kind of Holden Caulfield is easy to understand.

The few brief statements claims that Salinger created before his loss of life truly recommended that he ongoing to create stories, indicating that the majority of his works might not appear until after his death. Meanwhile, readers have become more really got rid of toward Salinger’s later articles, indicating that The Catcher in the Rye may one day be seen as part of a much bigger fantastic literature whole.


The Great Gatsby Study Guide and Summary

The Great Gatsby Study Guide and Summary

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