1: “VIEWS OF LANGUAGE IN THE 19TH CENTURY”
• Historical linguistics in the 19th and 12th centuries held views on language that were based on a long tradition going back to the Greeks.
“COMPONENTS OF LANGUAGE”
- Linguistics dealt with the sound system, the system of forms and their order and the lexicon of languages with out inter-relating these three components of language.
- Since students of languages were especially concerned with dead languages, notably Latin and Greek, grammars gave most attention to the problems faced in dealing with these languages.
- “This is the way, a change in the form of a word to show it’s grammatical, function, or gender”.
- The English language has been variously divided into the period by different writers. It is traditionally described as having through 4 major stages ever about 1500 years.
- Old English or Anglo-Saxon (0500-1050). More inflection.
- Middle English (1050-1550). Least inflection.
- Modern English (1550-1700). Nominal inflection.
- Late modern English (1700-till now)
Through extensive, exploration, colonization, and trade English spread worldwide 17th century on ward and remain the most important international language of trade and technology.
2. “THE 19TH CENTURY AND AFTER”
- The events of 19th and 20th centuries affecting the English speaking countries have been of great political and social importance but their effect on the language. They have not been revolutionary characters.
- A list air penny cook in his book” the cultural politics of English is a 2nd language”.
- In addition, English is language most widely thought as a foreign language, in more than 100 countries.
- When language has been become well integrated in to a country’s, politics, business, dealings, education and every day lives, it becomes a necessary elements for sustaining that society and its culture.
- The war against Russia in the Crimea and the contest with the native’s princess in India had the effect of given turning English attention to the east.
- The great reforms measures, the re-organization of parliament the revision of the penal code and poor laws were important factors in establishing English society on democratic basis.
- They lessened the distance between upper and lower classes and greatly increased the opportunities for population to share economic and cultural advantages available at that time.
- The establishment of news paper (1816) and the improved means of travel and communication had the effect of uniting more closely the different parts of England.
- Some other changes and events are reflected in English vocabulary.
3:“THE GROWTH OF SCIENCE”
- Science has made many discoveries and progress in the field of medicine, electricity, physics, and atomic energy etc.
- In every field of science, pure and applied, these have been need in the last hundred years for thousands of new terms.
- Medicine: in the field of medicine this is particularly apparent. Now different words of medicine are use in our daily life homeopathic, bronchitis, bacteriology, anemia etc. Names of drugs: aspirin, iodine, insulin, penicillin. Words like cholesterol are now the part of everyone’s vocabulary.
- All of these words have come in the use during the 19th and in some cases, in 20th century.
- Electricity: in the field of electricity words like commentator, alternating current and light have been in the language since 1870.
- Physics: physics has made us familiar with the terms like calorie, electron, ionization, radioactive, hydrogen bomb etc.
- Psychology: the psychologist has taught has taught us words like extrovert, introvert. And among the most publicized events of the 1960’s and 1970’s were the achievements of science and engineering in the exploration of space.
- Words like launch pad, count down, blast off are the words which relates to space science.
Addition to astronaut and cosmonaut.
1. Astronaut: someone who travels in space.
2. Cosmonaut: a Russian astronaut. And we all have scientifically mind.
- Scientific discoveries and inventions: automobile: example, car. Film: a story or event recorded by a camera. Broadcasting: transmit on radio or television.
4.”THE WORLD WAR”
- War between 1914 __1918
- Sector: a distinct area or part. Sector was used in the sense of a specific portion of the fighting line.
- There are 5 machines of enemy.
- Barrage: originally an artificial barrier like a dam in a river.
- Artillery or machine-gun: designated a protective screen of heavy artillery or machine-gun fire.
- Dud: a general word for any count filet thing.
- Counterfeit: worked as to deceive or cheat people.
- Shell: that was specifically applied to a shell that did not explode.
- Ace: acquired the meaning of a crack airman.
- Hand grenade: hand grenade went back to 1661, but attained new currency during the war.
- Great currency of words: some words which were either new or enjoyed great currency during the war, priority, tooling up, ceiling, bottle neck have become a part of the vocabulary of civilian life.
5. “LANGUAGE AS A MIRROR OF PROGRESS”
- The date when a new word enters Language is in general the date when the object, experience, observation or whatever it has entered their consciousness.
- Oxford dictionary: oxford dictionary which furnished us with dated quotations showing when the different meanings of every word first appear in the language.
6. “EARLY PART OF 19TH CENTURY”
• We find growing up a word like horsepower and Horsepower: a unit measuring the power of an engine. Lithograph: a print made by lithography. Lithography means printing from a flat metal surface which has been prepared that ink sticks only where it is required.
In the last quarter of the 19th century:
An interesting story of progress is told by new words or new meanings such as typewriter, telephone, motorcycle, introduced in 1896.
7. “IN 20TH CENTURY”
- About 1910 we began talking about the future.
- Dictaphone, raincoat and thermos became a part of the recorded vocabulary in 1907 and free verse in 1908.
8. “SOURCES OF THE NEW WORDS”
- Borrowing: it will be convenient to examine here, an illustration of the process by which a language extends its vocabulary.
- Many of the new words have been taken over ready made from the people from whom the idea or the thing designated has been obtained.
- Example: sky line formerly meant the horizon, but it is now common in such an expression as the New York skyline.
- Broadcast: originally had reference to seed but its implication to radio seems entirely appropriate from French come chauffeur, from Spanish, the way of United States, bonanza.
9. “SELF-EXPLAINING COMPOUNDS”
- A second source of new words is represented in the practice of making self-explaining compounds. A self explaining compound is the one of the oldest methods of word formation in the language.
- In earlier editions words like fingerprint, know how, lipstick, stream roller were mentioned as being rather new.
- Now some of the more recent formations are made such as think tank, skydiving, and body language, life style, put on.
10. “CHARACTERISTICS OF MODERN ENGLISH”
1. “compounds formed from Greek & Latin elements”:
The same method may be employed in forming words elements derived from Greek and Latin. Eugenics is formed with 2 Greek roots, eu-meaning well, and yes-meaning to born. The world therefore means well born and is applied to the efforts to bring about well born offspring by the selection of healthy parents.
2. “sources of new words-borrowing”:
English disposition to borrow words from other languages in the past, many new words have been taken over ready-made from the people. From French comes chauffeur.
3. “prefixes and suffixes”:
The addition in the start of word is called prefixes. Sub=substandard, extra=extraordinary. The addition in the end of word is called suffixes. Help=helpless, kind=kindness, love=loveable.
A considerable number of new words must be attributed to deliberate invention or coinage. They are mostly the product of ingenuity and imitation, the two being blended in variable proportions. Thus the trademark “Kodak” which seems to be pure invention was popularly used for years to refer to cameras of any brand.
5. “common words from proper names”:
Another source from which many English words have been derived in the past is the names of persons and places. Everyone is aware that morocco is derived from the corresponding proper name.
6. “grammatical tendencies”:
The substitution of “you were” for “you was” in singular occurs about 1820, and it is I is now often considered a social test where propriety is expected. Subjunctive mood in occasional use has disappeared except in conditions contrary to fact (if I were you).
7. “verb__adverb combinations”:
An important characteristic of the modern vocabulary is the large number like: set-out, gather up, put off, bring in, and made up of a common verb combined with an adverb.