In the race of feminism, one of the great feminist writer was Virginia Woolf. She is the pioneer of the literature reflecting the women troubleanities, inequalities, gender and identities differences, femininity (ies) and masculinity (ies) with true pen. Earlier the women was represented by the male writer in literature, that is why we find “Pamela” and Shakespearean women in ‘king Lear’ and ‘Hamlet’ as subordinate class. Even Donne’s women are not optimist in poetry. The patriarchal discourses was firstly was challenged by Virginia Woolf in “A ROOM OF ONE’S OWN”.
Feminism piece of literature that forces the female by its tremendous discourse to revolt against patriarchy and seeks equality and rebel to male dominance.
She was a “touch stone” for contemporaries and predecessors. Woolf believes that women are socially and economically disable. Men have prejudice and economic selfishness(1992: 14). She also uses the stream of consciousness by representing the feelings and emotions suppressed by men by physical torture and linguistic choices in discourses. She expresses her feeling as
“A room which a women may call her own and which she can be inhabit with same freedom as her brother”(Woolf, 1992: 191).
The male dominance and female subjugation is strictly criticized by realistic pen. She argues that fluidity comes if women have same freedom of expression like men. She argues further that women will not contribute in literature due to less access and material resources available to men. She strictly follows the capitalism and Marxism by saying that poverty has bitterly affected the literature.
Woolf, Language and Power
Spender (1980) states in hi most famous book “Men Made Language” that language in origin and implication men made. Male has strict control over language as power and claim to be master and women are subordinate to men in all patriarchal societies. She tells that men construct femininity (ies) through language. Spender is mile stone in feminism. Amebella Moorey & Sutori Soden (2010) argues in “Language, Society and Power (an introduction), that society, culture, ethnicity, class and gender has strong grip at thought. It is determiner of class and status. Language construct identities and femininity (ies). It is complex phenomenon of social construct.
Jenifer Coates, 2004 (women, men and language) justify that how male form dominance by language and talk differently and using language as power and prejudice. They are actually all the followers of Woolf.
In feminism, Britton believes in regard to femininity (ies) and identities in what are those that “make the world” and what are the basis to create distinctions behind.
“the subjects and events of the world do not present themselves to us ready classified . the categories into which they are divided are the categories into which we divided them” (1975: 23).
Spender 1975 also considers that powerful determination is language. Men has made world to imprison women, culturally and domestically. Dominance is of men. Britton argues that women are inhabited and passive in role in men made world. The power value and authorities reflects in reality. The value of men is anti to women. No doubt that patriarchal society represent women in comparison to men as ‘OTHER” and “I” is always in subjective position to men in ideologies and discourse(Belsey: 1985, Mullinex: 1996, Orgell: 1997).
In the first wave of feminism women are less independent as in Victorian society of Ibsen that is actually the start of gender equalization in form of feminist movements like Suffrage ,comparatively the dramas novels of Victorian society of late 18th and 19th century of autobiographical by women writers on the other hand male writes depicts the society as art for art sake while female writers use pseudo name to hide their identity under the supremacy of man in patriarchal society.
If we talk about the modern literature the “WE” referred by Britton, the division and organization is based on which principles?, Who make the world? Spender argues that Britton actually refers to male. So male is a superior group producing culture, language… contradicting values of man are against to the values of women. So that why women writers are always at wish to reshape the set of norms and values to produce objectivity instead of subjectivity. Women of classical literature is quite different from women of post modern literature. Feminist movements has changed the ideologies of female writers from autobiography to realism, feminism and other social draw backs .modern women writer it self dependant than Victorian. Trend has been set by Virginia Woolf. Women is now writing for women is challenge to early and female writers that use pseudonym to explore the realities discursive constructed by men.
Henrik Ibsen was a great modern Dramatist. Drama means to perform. In ancient times it was performed at stage or called and later on in public places theaters and auditoriums. Drama has long history that starts from Greeks. We find mimetic dramas based upon public feasts and inform of rituals. These forms are considered as the origination of drama. It was started from BC 525 and onward. The ancient dramas that are actually tragedies or heroic in nature. We find Oedipus Rex and ant gone by Sophocles. These are pure ancient classics. There language, plots, themes all are unique and appreciated by the literary critics. Drama has two main kinds: comedy and tragedy. Both are parallel to each other. Comedy got started by Oltandish Buffoonery in 350 BC. Roman empire and puritans age is considered one of the dark land stagnant period in the history of drama. Elizabethan age is flourishing age in which Shakespeare wrote comedy and tragedies. Each is has its particular theory of drama as classical neo-classical, realism and Marxism, capitalism, theater of absurd, existentialism and post modern drama. As for as the matter of female writer is concerned in regard to feminism , we see that the mid of 16th century female writers started to contribute but with pseudonymous. Romanticism flourished in the 18th century that old to classical and neo-classical thoughts. Each writer has own philosophy of writing and themes. Prose and novel also came to existence to the beginning o the 19th century but we see the drama having the femininity, ideologies and identities were introduced by Ibsen. He introduced realism to support the suffrage movement for female rights. He contributed with magical pen that become the corner stone for predecessors and women writers to participate in the feminist movements for equality and challenging the man made operation on patriarchal society.
History of English literature & Henrik Ibsen
History of English literature is started from 325 BC. The oldest genre of literature is poetry. Though there is no pet however historically we divide history in four categories as old English, middle English, renaissance, modern literature, post modern literature. We have one of the old piece of literature as “ BEOWULF”. King Alfred and Aelfric are the pioneer of literature. Middle English literature is is also res round poetry, the key figure is Chaucer with his famous work “The Canterbury Tales”. William Langland is also contemporary to Chaucer. once we travel to 16th century we find the majestic features of English literature, Christopher Marlow, Sydney, Spencer and Shakespeare, they contributed a lot not only in poetry but also revolution of drama was brought about in the field of literature. History, tragedy, comedy plays were written. The King Lear are the great dramas of the age. Poetry also introduced romantic, classical, natural, metaphysical and super natural in subject; epics are also originated by Dryden and Pope also got popularity in 18th century. Jane Austen and Walter Scot are the prominent figures. Nineteen century brought slight changes. Now women got entered in the writers family. Emily Bronte and Charlotte Bronte also earned the fame. G.B. Shaw and E.M Foster participated in the field of essay writing. Though puritan age is one of the dark age in English history but after the restoration English literature got flourished, female writers left the tradition of pseudonym and the 20th century is bulky with female writers. The realism, romanticism, classical writings, noe-classical literature and after the world wars the term of existentialism got popularity. As far as the matter of female writers concern we find that after Henrik Ibsen, Virginia Woolf developed the term feminism to get liberty and equal rights as men had. Male dominance was challenged. The women were always portrayed by male writers as domestic inhabit but after the three waves of feminism the male line society was changed to equality of gender. Now the femininity (ies) and masculinity (ies) are challenged. Henrik Ibsen is pioneer in this regard to feminism.
Femininity and Masculinity deals with the ideologies constructed socially with in a society on its ethnic,cultural and norms base. Following is the further elaboration of the both terms.
It is a set of ideologies that develops socially and forms womanly personality. This development remains continue from childhood to adulthood. It is an abstract quality which particular attributes are linked to women. Femininity is always constructed by society and that is why in patriarchal society women are considered to hug subordination to man. All and centric societies bear language of binary opposition. It may be rational or irrational, aggressiveness and politeness and dictate or subordinate. Even achievements of human are expressed in male perspective of language. Women are considered as soft, sympathetic, gentle and soft spoken.
“it is actually a social construct . It is womenness of women created discursively by language and culture. Skaggs believes that it occur with little ethnically, social, poetical worth”(Skaggs-1997-10).
It is associated to the behavior of male constructed by society in terms of au do not bear this then authorities and power. Male is considered as brave, strong, aggressive, dominating, egoistic and independent. If he do not bear this then he is foppish and sissy. Glover and Kaplan (2000-p.60-61) views
“The differences between men and women has to be sharply emphasized and feminine traits has to be kept their proper place in men. They were a sign of weakness”.
SEX, SEXUALITY AND GENDER
Sexuality and gender both terms have dependence upon each other. The analysis of sexuality involves Gender as a whole. The whole since is reflective in vice versa. Sexually men is considered more aggressive than women. Heterosexuality makes a men a real men a women true (Cameron& Kellick 2003,p 6-7).
Sexual impulses are developing right from childhood but society in itself force these impulses and mold the role of sex as per to gender. Sterling views (1995.p132)
“Genetics and hormones countless in making a man more a women.than does a socialization…..child born a male but raised a female becomes a heterosexual female”.
Oakley (1985) says “sex is a word that refers to the biological differences between male and female .the visible in genitalia the related differences in procreative function. “Gender” however is a matter of culture. It refers to a social classification into a Masculine and Feminine”(cited in Colebrook,2004). So gender is in fact masculinity and femininity constructed by society while sex is chromosomal and biological attribute that is in shape of female or male.
WHAT IS IDENTITY?
It is a complex and debatable terminology. The issue of identity has its importance in the ideological world. It may be related to a particular place, location, or society indeed. But unfortunately, the matter is not yet resolved. It has state of flux. (Stroller,1968) worked a lot and developed the term “identity” and believes that identity develops from the conscious or unconscious knowledge and is a flux and complicated process.
Stoller 1968—Kapline & Glover, 2000 initially introduced and developed the term “Gender Identity” and “Gender Role”. It means development of child’s knowledge bearing one sex .it distinguishes one sex to the others or feminine from masculine. This awareness builds the identity.
“Gender identity starts with the knowledge and awareness, whether conscious or unconscious, that one belongs to one sex not to others. Though as one develops, gender identity become much complicated so that, such as one may sense himself as a male but a masculine man or an effeminate men or even as men who fantasies being a women”
It has been got popular and introduced by psycho-linguists to describe the “Behavioral patterns”, appropriate to each sex. It may be describe through relations, clothing, and attitudes. This role is predetermined by sex. But Och, 1995 is opposite in thoughts and believes in construction and enactment via discourses. So as to interactionists approach roles are not fixed to Gender. It is vary to one country, culture, ethnicity and race.
According to oxford dictionary the term feminism means
“The advocacy of women rights on the grounds of political social and economic equality to men”(oxford dictionary)
John Johnson Lewis points out that feminism movement is contradictive and unequal stasis to women in patriarchal society on the base of social, ideological, racial, ethnical and cultural belief. It is corner stone for women. There have been different movements rum by modern and post modern feminists to make the identities and femininities desirable
A SHORT HISTORY OF FEMINISM
The term “Feminism “ got popularity since 19th century this was considerable movement for equal status of women that has lost in all aspects since creation of men. English language is manmade and also remained conservative cultural inspect over society in gender, identity and femininity perspective. Aristotle said “female is a female by virtue of a certain lake of qualities “. But later authors, writers recognized the fact and started to deconstructed the lost identity of women that is not a nut shell or miraculous and of male dominance in language and society it is dependent upon historically divided three waves and to be continue yet.
Though feminism got route in 18th century from America and Britton. A movement “A vindication of rights of women” was started by Wellstone craft. Later on mill also sported. Suffrage movement was first pace at large level. Maggie Humn discussed about different psychoanalytical linguistic theories in construction of femininities by women movement. Virginia Woolf played a vital role by creating conscious to women and wrote “A Rome of one’s own “.
Second wave of feminism developed in 1960. Simone de Beauvoir published 1960. New feminist news paper, Enouvelles feminism and a journal “questions feminists, Marxism, capitalism, civil right movement started.”The second sex is a master piece that is panacea to seek the binary cultural construction and male supremacy. Friedan’s talk for Heterosexuality and molded the women.
Third wave feminism is based on strucuctural and post structural and Maxilion theories that identify the gender and sexual differences. Elaine Showaltr argueswomen representation in literature is dominated by male discourse. Dale spender (1980) suggested that women are under oppression of men constructed by his language to. She consider it a social construction and complex in nature. Lackoff, women language is inferior by male dominance in patriarchal society. The idea of motherless and fatherless discourse was influenced by post structuralism. we find a clear interruptions in famine text based on subjectivity after influence of third wave of feminism. This is the great achievement of feminist movements that genders is both male and female a social construct based on biological differences the sex and gender and masculinity and femininity are more elaborated and influenced throughout cultures. It also explore the language role on sex, identity ideology and political grounds.
‘On Liberty’, The canonical statement of Mill’s utilitarianism can be found in Utilitarianism. This philosophy has a long tradition, although Mill’s account is primarily influenced by Jeremy Bentham and Mill’s father James Mill.
Mill’s famous formulation of utilitarianism is known as the “greatest-happiness principle”. It holds that one must always act so as to produce the greatest aggregate happiness among all sentient beings, within reason. Mill’s major contribution to utilitarianism is his argument for the qualitative separation of pleasures. Bentham treats all forms of happiness as equal, whereas Mill argues that intellectual and moral pleasures are superior to more physical forms of pleasure. Mill distinguishes between happiness and contentment, claiming that the former is of higher value than the latter, a belief wittily encapsulated in the statement that “it is better to be a human being dissatisfied than a pig satisfied; better to be Socrates dissatisfied than a fool satisfied. And if the fool, or the pig, are of a different opinion, it is because they only know their own side of the question.”
Mill defines the difference between higher and lower forms of happiness with the principle that those who have experienced both tend to prefer one over the other. This is, perhaps, in direct contrast with Bentham’s statement that “Quantity of pleasure being equal, push-pin is as good as poetry”, that, if a simple child’s game like hopscotch causes more pleasure to more people than a night at the opera house, it is more imperative upon a society to devote more resources to propagating hopscotch than running opera houses. Mill’s argument is that the “simple pleasures” tend to be preferred by people who have no experience with high art, and are therefore not in a proper position to judge. Mill supported legislation that would have granted extra voting power to university graduates on the grounds that they were in a better position to judge what would be best for society. It should be noted that, in this example, Mill did not intend to devalue uneducated people and would certainly have advocated sending the poor but talented to universities: he believed that education, and not the intrinsic nature of the educated, qualified them to have more influence in government.
The qualitative account of happiness that Mill advocates thus sheds light on his account presented in On Liberty. As Mill suggests in that text, utility is to be conceived in relation to mankind “as a progressive being”, which includes the development and exercise of his rational capacities as he strives to achieve a “higher mode of existence”. The rejection of censorship and paternalism is intended to provide the necessary social conditions for the achievement of knowledge and the greatest ability for the greatest number to develop and exercise their deliberative and rational capacities.
‘On Liberty’ Economic philosophy
Mill’s early economic philosophy was one of free markets. However, he accepted interventions in the economy, such as a tax on alcohol, if there were sufficient utilitarian grounds. He also accepted the principle of legislative intervention for the purpose of animal welfare. Mill originally believed that “equality of taxation” meant “equality of sacrifice” and that progressive taxation penalized those who worked harder and saved more and was therefore “a mild form of robbery”.
Given a tax break to the rich, Mill agreed that inheritance should be taxed. A utilitarian society would agree that everyone should be equal one way or another. Therefore receiving inheritance would put one ahead of society unless taxed on the inheritance. Those who donate should consider and choose carefully where their money goes—some charities are more deserving than others. Considering public charities boards such as a government will disperse the money equally. However a private charity board like a church would disperse the monies fairly to those who are in more need than others.
Later he altered his views toward a more socialist bent, adding chapters to his Principles of Political Economy in defense of a socialist outlook, and defending some socialist causes. Within this revised work he also made the radical proposal that the whole wage system be abolished in favour of a co-operative wage system. Nonetheless, some of his views on the idea of flat taxation remained, albeit in a slightly toned down form.
Mill’s Principles of Political Economy, first published in 1848, was one of the most widely read of all books on economics in the period. As Adam Smith’s Wealth of Nations had during an earlier period, Mill’s Principles dominated economics teaching. In the case of Oxford University it was the standard text until 1919. The text that replaced it was written by Cambridge’s Alfred Marshall.
‘On Liberty’ Economic democracy
Mill promoted economic democracy in the capitalist economy whereby labourers would elect members of management. Mill believed that this was necessary to end what he deemed to be dictatorial management of capitalist firms and to establish liberty and equality in the capitalist economy. Mill’s promotion of the right of labourers to elect management has been seen as support for economic corporatism.
Mill’s views on the environment
Mill demonstrated an early insight into the value of the natural world – in particular in Book IV, chapter VI of “Principles of Political Economy”: “Of the Stationary State” in which Mill recognised wealth beyond the material, and argued that the logical conclusion of unlimited growth was destruction of the environment and a reduced quality of life. He concluded that a stationary state could be preferable to neverending economic growth:
I cannot, therefore, regard the stationary state of capital and wealth with the unaffected aversion so generally manifested towards it by political economists of the old school.
If the earth must lose that great portion of its pleasantness which it owes to things that the unlimited increase of wealth and population would extirpate from it, for the mere purpose of enabling it to support a larger, but not a better or a happier population, I sincerely hope, for the sake of posterity, that they will be content to be stationary, long before necessity compel them to it.
Symbolism is literacy device used by prominent playwrights in history of English literature. Keats, Blake, Shelly, O’Neil and Henrik Ibsen used symbolic representation of subject in conventional or unconventional forms. Poet explores mysties through symbolic representation. In this context “ Symbolism Manifesto” was written by (Moreas,1986). Furthermore symbolism, Jane Austin’s pride and prejudice, T.S Eliot’s “The Wast Land” and Ulysses 1992 by James Joyce are the best symbolic works.
Ibsen significantly uses the symbols (symbolism) to represent the identities and ideologies of 19th century. He uses different symbols that relate to not only culture, religion,politics but also that bears the psychological effects indeed. It is unique developed myth of literature that illuminate the hidden facts un utterly. Symbols like door, macron, embroidered dress, tree, and even the title itself is symbolic and influence at the society.
“in theatre image and object, pretense and pretender, sign-vehicle and content, draw usually close”(Bert 1996: 20).
Symbols are the portraits of the illusions and bonds of society, here Ibsen is constructing in form of ‘NORA’ in A Doll’s House. Though Shakespeare plays are beyond to Ibsen age but both uses theatrical symbols even one is Norwegian and other is Englishmen.
IBSEN’S VIEW ABOUT SYMBOLISM
Ibsen himself says’
“to try and give the reader the impression of experiencing a piece of reality”(Ibsen qtd in homer :p.72).
The language, setting and even dress, parties are realistic features shown in symbols. Ibsen portrays the bourgeois features and finedfemininities, ideologies and identities in this drama and believes in the freedom and equality of woman.
Following are the symbols used by the Ibsen
Play open with door in setting, Nora walks towards door is sign of imprisonment of woman of 19th century under the bond of marriage. She seems to be happy but in fact critics peep inside the door and find the femininity (ies) and identities of domesticate woman.
“A room furnished comfortably and tastefully, but not extravagantly. At the back, a door to the right leads to the entrance-hall, an other to the left leads to HELMER:’s study. Between the doors stands a piano. In the middle of the left-hand wall is a door, and beyond it a window. Near the window are a round table, arm-chairs and a small sofa. In the right-hand wall, at the farther end, another door; and on the same side, nearer the footlights, a stove, two easy chairs and a rocking-chair; between the stove and the door, a small table”.(Ibsen, A doll’ s House: 2)
The whole drama is performed inside the room. That also brings the capitalistic perspective of the society. The door opening is actually view of the domestic situation in patriarchal society we find at the dismissal of the relations again the door is in front of Nora to celebrate freedom as earlier she entered in cage created by men
Ibsen provides non verbal feminists clues as Nora’s shawl, macron, tree etc..
“Just now. [Puts the bag of macaroons into her pocket and wipes her mouth.] Come in here, Torvald, and see what I have bought”.(Ibsen, A Dolls House:4)
The self independence is governed by Torveld is depicted by Ibsen. Suffrage movement was one of the central reaction against this male monopoly. Woman was not free physically and oppressed psychologically too. That is why Nora is subordinate creature to Helmer. “She shut the door, she continues to laugh, she takes off her things, she takes a bag of macrons out of her pocket and eats one or two”
In the male dominance the issue of identities and femininities is at the verge of collapse and the gradual intensity of this tyranny make persuade to other sex to rebel and snatch the freedom that was got by Nora at the end of play. She transgendered her identity.
CHRISTMAS TREE’s Symbolism
Christmas tree is symbolic representation of the Nora’s personality. It is decorated as Nora would be on Christmas day and there is a star twinkle top of the tree that represent the hope and ambitions of Nora. The new year that starts from Christmas is symbolic to the feminists movements that give liberty to Nora against the male dominance. Nora is as attractive in multidimensional identity, a mother a daughter , a wife hence she is a pleasing object constructed by Ibsen as religion refers to Christmas.
John Northon argues that,
“the symbols is for the first time, a physical reality on the stage, a mere enough to it suggest actual presence. It is therefore both fact and symbol and from that fusion emerges the closure union of symbolism and reality which makes the play so complexly significant (the wild duck 1884, p.105-06)
SQUIRREL SKYLARK’s Symbolism
“Is that my little lark twittering out there”?(Ibsen, A Doll’s House:5)
Ibsen uses the animated and in animated choices and refers Nora to innocent bird like skylark. The linguistic choices in symbolic representation are patriarchal in nature has Sapirwhorf hypothesis languages is determined by thought and that thought gives strength to male to manipulate and enjoy the power of language Nora is inhibited in Helmer’s house and she is praised by him in metaphoric speech pattern but at the end the same skylark is ready to fly for freedom autonomy
TITLE as Symbolism
The title is in itself a symbolic note describing the femininity and identity of the Victorian society doll is a playful object for everyone and even that is a decoration piece feeling less and emotionless she is a puppet in the hand of Torveld who want to push the strings according to his wish. Nora also apparently functions as commanded doll but in the end of the play writer is succeeded to awake her from subordination and rebel from the male dominance. She is now independent and making her decision according to her will and choice. The last line she uttered is sign of change bringing the equal rights without gender segregation. The whole drama is full with linguistic lexical and symbolic references representing the female of Ibsen’s “A Doll’s house”.
“Yes, yes, it will. But come here and let me show you what I have bought. And all so cheap! Look, here is a new suit for Ivar, and a sword; and a horse and a trumpet for Bob; a doll and dolly’s bedstead for Emmy,—”(Ibsen, A Doll’s House:5)
Toys are the clear picture of thee development of ideology and identity. Nora has bought “a horse and a sword” for her earlier son so that male is initially represented as holder of power and authority while the gifts for Emmy are dolls that is the significant example to build femininity (ies) and masculinity (ies) culturally that is why Emma is gifted by a doll. Ibsen says that a woman of his century is much advanced and womanhood is a socially constructed phenomenon created by men and female writers as symbolism.
Modern technology has made it easy to move from one area to another, and Americans are becoming increasingly mobile in all aspects of their lives. Sometimes, the decision to move is spurred by a personal tragedy, but there are many other valid reasons as well. Companies frequently provide opportunities for employees to transfer, and promotions within organizations are often contingent upon a relocation agreement.
Another reason for relocating relates to personal issues. People often desire the unfamiliar, so it is common for someone in a rural setting to move to a city. Individuals who live in large metropolitan areas may crave the simplicity and quietness of a small town. Job opportunities are the biggest driver of relocation to cities, but self-employment and remote work is also a growing trend. Workers may find the ideal balance between work and life by relocating to a desirable environment while contracting their services remotely to a large company far away.
Personal loss and bereavement also drive people to relocate. Familiar sights and sounds may exacerbate the pain of losing a loved one. Moving may help relieve the deep sense of grief and isolation. Sometimes, the distraction of a new environment reduces the intensity of the pain, but additional steps will increase the likelihood of recovery. For example, nutrition and pain-relieving therapies directly affect the internal feelings of pain. Developing these new skills are invaluable activities. A new exterior environment may reinforce the sense of recovering; however, one approach does not necessarily replace the other, and combining the two has the greatest therapeutic effect.
A growing body of work recognizes numerous therapeutic benefits to be gained from relocation therapy. Each individual responds differently to a given environment, so the therapeutic approach should always take preferences and personality into consideration. For example, people who experience a positive reaction to large bodies of water will benefit by relocating to an area near the ocean; however, others fear the water, and this solution would not have the same effect on them. The context and timing of the relocation is as important as the area itself. Moving too soon may prevent closure, which is a deeply personal event. Ultimately, the decision to move presents an opportunity to grow in new and profound ways. This journey often requires introspection and a deep awareness of the internal realms of consciousness.
Racial differences have also been the disputed aspect of colonialism. Actually the inhabitants of this world are classified under two categories; the white / red and the black/brown.
In racial, the whites or red are always considered fortunate and belonging to the ruling class. On the other hand, blacks are treated as inferior, misfortunate, mean, vulgar, dishonest and embodiment of evils. All the negative connotations are connected to the black race of the world.
They were discussing as to whether or no it is possible to be friends with an Englishman. Mahmoud Ali argued that it was not, Hamidullah disagreed… ‘I only contend that it is possible in England,’ replied Hamidullah (Forster 1924: 34).
The Indians were disturbed by the attitudes and behaviors of the English people into Racial. Muslims were discussing about their friendships and relationships with the English class the aspect of racial. Aziz asks Mahmoud Ali about the nature of Anglo-Indian friendship. Mahmoud Ali and Aziz disagreed but Hamidullah said that it may be possible in England. In England, the English class makes no prejudice about race or racial differences. Hamidullah was welcomed with open arms when he went at Cambridge. But the English were rulers in India. They considered it foul and unlawful to make friendship with the Indians. If there is friendship between the black and the white, how it will be possible to make distinction between the ruling class and the ruled class.
Hamidullah give an example to argue his point,
It is impossible here. Aziz! The red-nosed boy has again insulted me in court. I do not blame him. He was told that he ought to insult me. Until lately he was quite a nice boy, but the others have got hold of him. ‘Yes, they have no chance here that is my point (Forster 1924: 34).
It is impossible to build relationship and friendship among the Anglo-Indian in India. Hamidullah was very passionate to answer Dr. Aziz’s question. After the name of ‘Aziz, there is the usage of exclamation mark which shows Hamidullah’s feelings. ‘The red-nosed’ boy presents the Western class. A White man insulted Hamidullah in the court. The word ‘again’ shows the repetition. It means that he is insulted by the White man not in a single time. Hamidullah said that he could not react to the humiliated behavior of the red-nosed boy.
Hamidullah remained quiet and calm because he was stranger in England. But the red-nosed boy keeps him to be insulted. At last the boy realized the mysteries of my silence due to which he became a nice boy. But the other Western people kept on taunting the red-nosed boy due to his calmness.
The concept of culture can be used in different ways. Having several meanings and connotations, it has become the broadest term.
‘Culture’ refers to all those activities and values on which the building of some society is placed. It also covers the intellectual and artistic activities and products of the society. According to some anthropologists, it can be used to describe the best activities and products in the society.
The members of some community share their own feelings, emotions and beliefs with each other under the specifications of certain culture. It also conveys the expressions how people make behaviors, responses and reactions to each other. There are systems or patterns of values, symbols, ritual myths, and practices that are included in culture. It is famous that culture includes norms, values, language, religion, attitude, behavior and social practices. Culture is made through the unification of all those mentioned elements. This world is based on different cultures, but the most prominent cultures are the Western and Eastern in all over the world.
The English and The Indians present their own cultures through their certain actions, norms, beliefs and values. Forster’s ‘A Passage to India’ presents two main cultures; the western and the eastern. But the Eastern is further divided into two cultures; Hinduism and Islam. This research is going to depict the colonial constructions of power belonging to the English, the Hindu and the Muslim cultures.
CULTURE DIFFERENCES IN THE NOVEL
Being the English colony, India was the embodiment of three different cultures; English, Hinduism and Islam. Forster depicts these differences in an appropriate way in his novel. In the second chapter of the novel, when Dr. Aziz goes for dinner at Hamidullah’s home, there is a discussion on the cultural differences across the Anglo-Indians;
No, that is where Mrs. Turton is so skillful. When we poor blacks take bribes, we perform what we are bribed to perform, and the law discovers us in consequence. The English take and do nothing. I admire them (Forster 1924: 34)
Mrs. Turton was bribed by some Raja when she was selected as an inspector for canal scheme. Some people gave her a sewing machine in solid gold so that the water should run through their states. Actually bribery is a social crime due to which several problems get birth. Mrs. Turton was much bribed due to her social status. It is considered unlawful act in Islam. Dr. Aziz talks to Hamidullah that the act of bribery is legitimate near the Christians.
First of all, the Muslims run away from the approaching this social evil. If some Indians or black people have to bribe at the performance of some act, they are charged as black sheep in the whole society. On the other hand they have to face their music. There is no law for the English people at some bribery act. The Englishmen take it as a gift or reward, while the black race is punished very severely on this foul work. Dr. Aziz says that it is the main point to present the admiration of the western people.
Indian culture is recognized through its inhabitants’ customs, values and beliefs. Indian people always spend their leisure in taking hookah and pan. These are the best source to spend the spare time in gossips. In the second chapter Dr. Aziz utters,
If my teeth are to be cleaned, I don’t go at all. I am Indian, it is and Indian habit to take pan (Forster 1924: 38)
Dr. Aziz and Hamidullah were going to start dinner but they were interrupted by some letter from Major Callendar. Actually it was a summon Aziz to come urgently. In the very beginning, Dr. Aziz refuses to visit the civil surgeon. But Hamidullah insisted not to have a refusal. Dr. Aziz is also advised that he should clean up his teeth.
In these given lines, two particular things are mentioned regarding Dr. Aziz’s character. If Dr. Aziz engages himself in cleaning his teeth he will be late. So it shows his punctuality regarding his duties and responsibilities. Second thing is to be proud in having Indian identity. He thinks that it is an Indian habit to take pan. Hence, he needs not to clean his teeth. Hamidullah realizes Dr. Aziz’s punctuality and his cultural arrogance after having some discussion. In the same chapter, Forster further throws light on the Western and the Hindu culture.
One night, over in the Club, the English community contributed an amateur orchestra. Elsewhere some Hindus were drumming-he knew they were Hindus, because the rhythm was uncongenial to him-and others were bewailing a corpse (Forster 1924: 41).
These lines are the presentations of comparison of two cultures. When Dr. Aziz is summoned by Major Callendar and he found no message for him, he went to Mosque. All the English class was busy in doing a play ‘Cousin Kate’ at the club. Dr. Aziz heard an artistic music from the side of club. The English class was enjoying its high status in the India.
Dr. Aziz recognized the Western culture through its presentations. Music is considered fair and accepted action in the Christianity. The Westerns call music the diet for soul. On the other hand Dr. Aziz also heard the beat of drum sitting in the Mosque. He recognized it that these sounds were produced by Hindu culture the rhythm of the drumming was unpleasant and mental torture for Aziz. Dr. Aziz did not like it because it was foul and unlawful act in Islam.
There has been a great religious dispute among the Hindus and the Muslims, in India. Some people were busy in mourning at the corpse. It is also the symbol of Hindu culture. The writer could use here the word ‘mourning’ but he used ‘bewailing’ to emphasize the Hindus feelings at a particular situation.