Short Stories

Why can’t you understand me?

A married man was ready for office. Zack is a business man. He is a busy person; he is very much involved in his business. Even ignore his lovely wife. Allen is well-educated and well-mannered. She takes better care of house. She wanted to have some attention and response of her husband but he neglected her every time. Zack knows well that she depends on him and she loves him a lot. He has no time to utter a single word for express his love to her. Actually that was love marriage of them. Today also he is eager to go office as daily routine. But today after his she thinking about her painful life and recalls her mind to the past. Alen think about the great memories which they spent lovely time with each other.

Today she remembers how she met him first time. One evening Alen was standing on path waiting for bus. But bus was late due to heavy rain. Therefore she can’t go her way that time. At that moment she looks a descent boy who was starring her, may be from a long time. Zack attracts by her “Misty eyes”. And she looks in his intoxicated eyes and she also attracted. She thinks that intoxicated eyes she has never seen before. Actually these intoxicated eyes were the reflection of her eyes that effected first time in his eyes. They were starring each other with deep love. Unconsciously he comes close to her and she feel obsessive……

Alen came into reality with the voice of doorbell. She run towards the door thinking that might be her husband was there…the servant was on the door. She became sad….she asked servant to go back because she was upset that time. She was alone at home. She decided to make special lunch for her husband. She began prepare her husband’s favorite dishes…After making, she began waiting for Zack. When Zack came in evening, she invited him for dinner on the table. But he refuse her to say that he want to go outside for dinner. She insists him a lot but he said that

 “You can’t understand me yet…!”

Allen became so sad and walks with him to outside. When they entered to Hotel for dinner, most of the people began starring to pretty girl. In fact, she really looks so beautiful there. To see that her husband go back. When they reached home then her husband said to her

“I know….you can’t love me ever”

This line shows his thinking towards his wife.

To see that situation he recalls his mind a painful day of his life…..when Zack asked her

“I Love your eyes and attracted me a lot from the very first day of their co-incidentally interaction. So….!!

“Do you love me??…….Alen”

In the answer she didn’t utter a single word…Actually she did so just because of shyness but he assumes that she doesn’t like him with the core of heart. He wants some response from her side but she ignored due to shyness. This incident creates pain in his mind and heart because he still thinks…She doesn’t love him”.

That’s why he ignored her every time and she wants some response from his side. Therefore, He has a lot of complaints from his wife and she also has a lot of complaints from her husband.

The Next day, Zack went office as usual to neglect his wife’s smile. Today she decided to leave her husband. When her husband came to home in evening. She told him about her decision to leave him forever….

Her husband became shocked to hear that……..!!!

Firstly he considered it is a serious joke but later realizes that she speaks truth. She was ready to leave him. But she still loves her husband a lot. She was facing a lot of neglection  from her husband still from the very first day of their marriage.

Now she was ready to leave house forever….there is tears in her eyes. When she looks at her husband…there are also a lot of tears in which beautiful eyes that she loves most from a very first sight. Zack was crying and wanted to stop her with the

Saying that

“Don’t leave me, I don’t be ignore you again…..I love you very must from very first sight…But she made a decision to leave….And says to him “If you have some spare time then call me to ask come back but now am going from here”

He starring to his wife with tears, she considered as it is temporary.

When Allen moved towards the door, then her servant ask to her “you shouldn’t leave your husband and give him a chance”

In the answer, she said to her servant that

“If my husband loved me then he should finish his life and stop me”

Actually, there was just a dialogue that she spoke in front of servant ……..but her husband take it seriously…When she finished her dialogue she heard a voice of shoots of pistol.

When she run upstairs to her husband Zack….She became shocked to see her husband who was smiling and saying that……

“Today I knew that you really loves me a lot therefore you can’t lose me at any cost and you want to live with me here”

To hear that she began crying….hug him and kissed……..then she decides don’t leave him forever…………..





Othello, The Moor of Venice (Othello Character)


Othello is the first black lead character in Western literature, and remains one of the most famous. The drama depicts the hero’s fall From Grace – Othello begins as a noble guy (he is a famous war hero and respected, a loving husband and a narrator telling), but at the end of the play, Othello was an irrational, violent and crazy jealous husband who kills his own wife, after Iago convinces him that Desdemona is unfaithful.

Starting with the first lines of the play, Othello remains at a distance of more action and that relates to the affects. Iago and Roderigo unambiguously refer to a ‘he’ or ‘him’ too much the first scene. When they begin to define who they are talking about, especially when they are under the window Brabanzio, they do with racial epithets, not names. These include ‘Moor’ (Ii57), ‘thick lips’ (Ii66), ‘an old black ram’ (Ii88) and ‘a Barbary horse’ (Ii113). Although Othello is at the beginning of the second stage, we do not hear his name until well into act, scene III (I.iii.48). Later, Othello being the last of three ships arriving from Cyprus in Act II, Scene I ; stand Othello, Iago and Cassio, while supposedly discussing Desdemona in Act IV, scene, Othello and Cassio will assume that died without having been present when the fight takes place in Act V, scene I.

Othello’s Status in Venice;

A black man from North Africa, Othello has traveled the world and sold into slavery, escaped and ended as commander of the Venetian army and maintain a powerful Italian city-state. State of Venice, Othello is a beautiful complex – it is both from within and without, as a foreigner. On the one hand, a Christian leader and military experience, commanding the respect and admiration of the Duke, in the Senate, and many citizens of Venice. On the other hand, being a black anchor and foreign nationals as Othello in Venice in some kind of racial discrimination evident, especially by the father of his wife, who believes that Desdemona interracial marriage can be the result of the deception of Othello.

Miscegenation’s Fears ;

Brabantio is a senator of Venice, said:

Othello is “thrilled” with Desdemona, “Smelly fascinating” and spells. Otherwise, he insists, Desdemona would never ever run, “sooty bosom”, and Othello. In this game, Othello Desdemona’s marriage without delay signs refer to Othello as “thick-lips”, “devil” and “a black, old and pushing” the woman apparently poor whites (Desdemona), his hyper-sexuality. At one point, Iago of Othello is “the devil” that makes Brabantio “grands” black as hell kids.

According too many literary critics:

Many critics have pointed out that the drama seems to capture common (and dangerous) attitudes toward interracial couplings XVI and XVII. You can also draw some correspondence between the play and the current attitude of the United States.

According to an actor:

Actor Paul Robeson (black American actor, who broke the color barrier when he played Othello on Broadway in 1943) had to say about Othello:

 “In Venice at the time [Othello] was almost the same position as a black man in America today [1930]. There was a general, and while it might be useful as a fighter, tolerated as a black New York could save a disaster became a great man overnight. So soon, however, as a white woman wanted Othello, Desdemona, everything changed, like New York, would be outraged if the black man married a white woman. “

(See “My Fight for Fame. How Shakespeare Paved My Way to Stardom.” Pearson’s Weekly, April 5, 1930 p 100.

1930 may seem a long long time ago, but it would be wrong to say that Shakespeare’s work, and Paul Robeson remarks are not relevant today. Not later than October 2009, a white judge in Louisiana refused to marry interracial couples.

The suspicion of Othello:

Despite the ban, and interracial marriage, Othello and Desdemona are happy and in love at the beginning of the game. So what happens? Why come to convince Othello that his wife is unfaithful to the faithful?

Brooding/Egocentric Othello:

To read this play, my conclusion is that

we can also consider another option.
First loves Othello “good enough” is not Desdemona – it is himself. Jealousy is a feeling very selfish and
Second, Othello spend a lot of fans of the game with the way Desdemona hurt and try to come back for her. He likes his feelings, as reflected cheating.

Scholar Marjorie Garber,
Marjorie Garber suggests that selfishness begins long before Othello Iago comes to him. She points out that associating the interior Othello, his personal life with his appearance, life. He cannot draw all the constraints between them. Most people cannot believe that Othello is that there is a problem in their personal lives, destroying their ability to function in their careers.

However, the scene of Othello to the Senate that is willing to ensure that the Senate will not allow their marriage in the way of his career. Also, when Othello believes that Desdemona has deceived her first reaction is to say, “Goodbye to understand the crowd and the great wars of occupation … Othello is gone.”

Destructiveness of Othello, his determination to punish Desdemona deceived her, stalks her temperament that Desdemona immoral activities are also hurt. What makes Othello so furious, according to Garber, when it comes to himself, Othello is a purist. All this is evidence of a rather poor Othello.

But take a step back. Why is Othello a purist egocentric, first? Othello is dangerous perfectionism can stay away from his position as an outsider, a black man in white Venetian society. Othello could not have reached his position of power with an incredible self-discipline. In fairness to Othello, we need to consider carefully why it is so obsessed with his own self-perception, and why it is so easily convinced that Desdemona was leaving him and moving on to another man. To the extent that these factors are the result of outsider status Othello and bigotry, he has constantly to be overcome, we may want to cut some hanging Othello.

‘My opinion’

We know that Iago have power over Othello with his lies about Desdemona, but Iago never actually offers up any real proof of Desdemona’s “affair,” which suggests that Othello is credulous.
There are a couple of ways, Othello’s excitement to believe the worst about his wife. Some literary critics suggest that Othello believes that all women are inherently wanton. This seems to be the case when he says things like all men are “predestined” cuckolded by their wives.

Other critics argue that Othello begins to absorb the bigoted attitudes that surround him in Venice. In other words, Othello begins to believe in two things,

Firstly, He is not a good enough for Desdemona because he is black and, Secondly, as a black man, his relationship with his wife may “soil” her, which we discuss in more detail in our discussion the theme of “Race.”




Making Rain, What a New Idea?

One way of preventing flood may be by making rain! This may sound rather strange. As we know, heavy rain is the cause of floods, and in Malaysia most of the floods are caused by the annual monsoon, which brings heavy rain to the east coat. If, however, the rain could be made to fall in the China Sea, there would be no more floods since the rain clouds would not reach the east coast.
Is it possible to make clouds give up their rain? Yes, it is, and in 1973 the National Institute of Scientific and Industrial Research (NISIR) suggested that it should be tried. The Institute knew of course that it is not possible to make all clouds give up all their rain. It calculated, however, that if the Frequency of rainfall could be reduced by ten per cent, and the amount of rain that fell each time could be reduced by fifteen per cent, the total amount of flood damage would be reduced by forty to fifty per cent.
As you probably know, clouds are caused by air containing water vapor.The air rises and, since water vapor becomes water when it cols, very tiny drops of water are formed. Since these drops are very small, they float in the air and form a cloud. When the cloud rises, however, the drops become colder.
Because of this, they join together and become big drops. The big drops are no longer able to float because of their size, and they fall, As they fall they pick up more drops and become bigger. This is the cause of rain.
Rainmaking means making these bigger drops form and fall before they would normally do so. This can be done by ‘seeing’ the clouds with chemicals, like planting seeds in the ground.

Rain can be produced in this way by three chemicals:
sodium chloride (the salt we use on our food), dry ice, which is frozen carbon dioxide, and silver iodide. The seeding is done by aeroplanes which fly through the clouds.

The Institute said that sodium chloride was more effective when the clouds were warm, and silver iodide worked better when the clouds were very cold. For this reason, it was decided to use a mixture of sodium chloride and silver iodide. The experiment began in November, 1973. The Royal Malaysian Air Force supplied a Caribou transport aircraft with special equipment to carry and release the chemicals. When the monsoon clouds appeared, about forty kilometers from the coast, the Caribou took off and flew through the clouds, seeding them with the chemicals. This took place at a height of about 3,000 metres. After ten to twenty minutes, the rain began to fall.
When the experiment was over, it was estimated that six aircraft would be needed. They would have to seed the clouds from Johore to Kota Baharu for three months every year. This would cost about Rs 3,000,000 each year. This is a lot of money but it is much less than the cost of the damage caused by floods. In times of drought, moreover, the same method could be used to make rain over land.
Perhaps one day we may be to control the rainfall here in Pakistan.


Articles Short Stories

The Wise Villagers

There was once a large village that lay near a wide river. The land was rich and fertile, and the people who lived there were happy and wealthy. They had no enemies and lived peacefully. They troubled no one and no one troubled them.
Not very far away from the village there was a town. One day the people of the town held a meeting. They gathered in the marketplace to discuss a plane for a new road. The road was going to be built between their town and another one, about fifty kilometers away. A large map of the area was studied, and a rout was soon worked out. The people decided how much money they were going to spend on building the road.
Following this meeting, work began and the news of the road reached the people in the village. Some of the villagers got together and went to find out more. When they reached the town, they went straight to the office of the District Officer and looked at the map.
When they returned home, they called a meeting of the villagers. One of the men who had seen the map said, ‘friends, today some of us saw the map of the new road. It is going to pass close to our village. It will go through some of out best fields, and they will be destroyed. How can we stop this road?’
The villagers were very angry. They sat in the meeting for a long time, but at last they thought up a plan.
A week after the meeting, a man from the town came to the village and found a great crowd of people beside the river. The man from the town was curious. He went over to where the people had gathered. He squeezed through the crowd and saw an amazing sight. There were seven men standing on one bank of the river and seven men on the other. They were holding a thick rope stretched across the river. In the middle someone had tied a cup.
‘What are they doing?’ asked the townsman. ‘They are taking water out of the river,’ replied a man standing close by.
‘With a cup?’ asked the townsman. ‘Oh yes,’ replied the man.
‘But it will take hours to get a bucketful,’ said the townsman.
‘Yes,’ said the man. ‘It is slow. But we always get water out of the river like this. It’s a slow way, but it always works.’
The man from the town was very surprised indeed. He scratched his chin and said to himself, ‘These people are all mad!’ When he got back to the town and told all his friends about what he had seen in the village, they laughed and laughed.
One or two of the man’s friends just could not believe that people could be so stupid. So, the next day, two of them set off to the village to see for themselves. When they arrived at the villege, they found a huge crowd of people standing round a tall tree. The trunk of the tree was nearly two meters wide. Two men were busily working on the trunk.
Each had a small penknife in his hand and was cutting the wood. They were working so hard that the sweat was pouring off their foreheads. ‘What are they doing?’ asked one of the men from
the town. ‘Why,they are cutting down the tree,’ replied one of the villagers. ‘Can’t you see?’ ‘With penknives?’ asked the townsman.
‘Yes,’ said a villager in the crowd. ‘We always cut trees down with penknives.’ ‘But it will take a year or two,’ said the townsman. ‘Yes,’ replied the villager. ‘aiat is slow, but it is a good method. It always works.’
The men from the town were quite astonished. They went back to the town. The stories about the villagers and their odd behaviour spread like wildfire. ‘Those people are quite mad,’ the townsfolk said.

The news even reached the District Officer. ‘What’s all this about?’ he asked. ‘Are the villagers really mad?’
‘Yes, indeed they are,’ replied his chief clerk. ‘They take water out of the river with a cup, and they cut down trees with penknives! They’re quite crazy.’ ‘Are they dangerous?’ asked the District Officer, nervously.
‘I don’t know,’ replied the clerk. The following day the District Officer, and a few of the other important people of the town went to the village to find out more. When they got there they saw a long line of women walking to and from a large anthill. Each woman was carrying a basket. The first woman in the line stepped up to the anthill and took an ant from the moist earth. She put the ant in her basket, and carried it away. ‘What are they doing?’ asked the astonished District
‘They are carrying away ants,’ replied a man standing nearby. ‘Why?’ asked the District Officer. ‘Because ants are very dangerous,’ said the man. ‘They eat everything. We must carry them away.’ ‘But, one in each basket!’ cried the District Officer. ‘That’s ridiculous!’

‘We always do it that way,’ replied the man. It’s slow, but it’s a good method. It always works.’ When the District Officer returned to the town, he called a meeting. ‘I have been to the village,’ he announced. ‘The people there are quite mad.
They take water out of the river with a cup; they cut down trees with penknives; they carry ants away, one by one. They are lunatics. Don’t go near them.’ ‘But, sir,’ said one of the secretaries. ‘Our new road is going to go right past that village.’
‘Then change the plans,’ roared the District Officer. ‘We can build the road along the top of the hill. It must not be constructed near that village!’ So the road was built along the top of the hill and did not go anywhere near the village. The people of the village ploughed their fields and went back to their undisturbed way of life. They were not mad at all; they were very wise.


Articles Short Stories

The Thousand Rupee

A man and his wife together in a small village near Hyderabad. One day, the lady told her husband that she was going to Hyderabad to do some shopping.
There are many big shops in Hyderabad, and the lady liked shopping there. Early the next morning the man woke his wife with a hot cup of tea. ‘Wake up, dear,’ he said softly. ‘I have made you a cup of tea’. It’s near your pillow. I am also leaving a thousands-rupee note next to the cup. Don’t go back to sleep, or you will miss the bus. He shook her gently and then went out off to work in the fields.
As the lady lay on her bed and thought about what she was going to buy that day she sleep lightly. She woke up with a start. ‘Oh dear!’ she said, looking at the clock. ‘I shall have to hurry, or I’ll miss the bus’. The lady washed and dressed quickly. She takes hold of bed her bag and walked as fast as her legs would take her. When she reached the bus stop she was huffing and puffing.
Soon the bus arrived and the lady fought to get on. What a crowd there was on the bus! Everyone in the district seemed to be going to Hyderabad that day. It was market day and many of the villagers were going to sell their wares in the city.

There were men with baskets and sacks ; women with babies and bags; and children and old people with chickens and  ducks. The roof of the bus was piled high with boxes and bags, baskets and sacks, trunks and containers of all shapes and sizes. Somehow, the lady squeezed in. She sat on the edge of a seat next to a very heavy woman, who was holding a large bag on her lap.
Soon the bus began to move. It creaked and groaned; it rattled and clanked. The engine roared and off it went, faster and faster down the road. With some difficulty the lady peered out of the window. She could see the field and trees, and the
shops and the houses besides the road. She was bounced up and down, and when the bus went round a corner, she had to hold on tight. It was not too uncomfortable as she had a nice plump cushan on one side! It was hot and stuffy in the bus and the lady yawned and then fell fast asleep.
After a few minutes, a loud bang woke her. A large box had fallen off the roof of the bus. The bus screeched to a halt and two or three men got out and ran off down the road to fetch it. The passengers all laughed and cheered.
The lady rubbed her eyes and said to herself, ‘I really must stay awake. I have a lot of money in my purse, and if I fall asleep someone might take it’. She carefully opened her purse to check if her money was still there. To her shock and dismay the purse was empty! She put her purse away quickly and sat quietly, thinking about what she shoud do.
She looked at the woman sitting beside her. Her eyes were shut and she was snoring loudly. ‘Aha!’ said lady to herself. ‘I think you are pretending to sleep, my dear. And I think you must have stolen my thousand-rupee note!’
She noticed that the woman’s bag was quite dirty. She also noticed that the woman’s clothes were old and worn. The woman was certainly not rich. She felt sorry for her, but she also felt very cross. She decided not to make a big fuss or call for the police.
Very carefully and quitly, the lady opened the woman’s bag, and there, on top of a large, red handkerchief, lay the thousand-rupee note. She carefully pulled out the note and tucked it away in her purse. When the bus reached Hyderabad, the women and the men, the children and the chickens, the sacks and the boxes and the bags all poured out
of the bus. With some difficulty the lady got out too. She had a wonderful time in the city. She walked up and down the market and stopped to look at the people and the traffic. She gazed at all the wonderful things in the shops and even talked to some of the shopkeepers. She bought lots of things.

The day went by very quickly. Soon it was time to catch the bus home. A young boy helped the lady with her bags and parcels. Luckily, she was early and found a good seat on the bus. She looked around at the people on the bus. She saw faces she knew and many she did not know. One she remembered was that of the woman who was now sitting at the back of the bus, looking very upset, indeed.
In no time at all, the bus arrived at the village. The lady’s husband was there to greet her. Her helped her to unload her bags. Then he scratched his head and looked very puzzled. He started at all the bags and parcels.
‘I see you have bought a lot of things today,’ said the husband. ‘But, where did you get the money?’

‘What a silly question,’ replied the lady. ‘Why, you gave me a thousand-rupee note this morning!’
‘I did,’said the man. ‘But when I got home from the fields, the note was still lying beside your bed where I left it.’
The lady said nothing. She turned and looked at the bus. It was going off at a great speed, leaving behind it a huge cloud of dust and smoke. She now knew why the woman on the bus had looked so upset.

By: Aqsa Riaz

A Doll's House Drama

‘A Doll’s House’ Full Study Guide


After eight years of marriage, Nora realizes that she has never been a partner in her marriage and Helmer treated her like ‘Doll’. Nora’s husband was so rude person. The feminist showing of a good middle-class wife and mother. At the end, she
leaves her husband in order to show an identity for herself that is separate from her identity as a wife and mother.

Main Characters

Torvald Helmer

1-Torvald Helmer

He is an argument person who is the husband She is Torvald’s wife who is treated like a child by her husband. She leaves her husband and children at the end. Nora borrowed money from that person. He is an admired of Nora. He has a disease of TB. At the end of play, announces his death.

2- Nora
She is Torvald’s wife who is treated like a child by her husband. She leaves her husband and children at the end.

3- Krogstad
Nora borrowed money from that person.

4-Dr. Rank
He is an admired of Nora. He has a disease of TB. At the end of play, announces his death.

Minor Characters

1- Christine Linde
2- The children
1- Christine Linde

Nora’s friend who comes to Nora and insists her to ask her husband for a job.

2- The children

Nora treats her children like dolls and play with them.


Helmer’s Apartment. The play takes place at the apartment.


There some off-stage action takes place. A door leads from the stage into an imaginary room.


The place where Nora danced the Tarantella.


While she eats macaroons, Dr. Rank and Mrs. Linde enter. Rank starts speaking with Torwald while Linde speaks with Nora. Linde insists her to ask her husband to give Linde a job at the bank. Actually she needs a job because her husband has died. At that time, Nora tells her about borrowing money to pay for the trip to Italy for her and her husband. She also says to her , Torvald doesn’t know that she paid for it. Rank speaks with Nora and Linde, He complains about the moral corruption in society. Krogstad arrives and talk to Torvald about keeping his job. A few minutes later, he leaves and Rank comments that Krogstad is one of the most corrupt people in the world. Ranks leaves and Nora asks her husband not to fire Krogstad. But her husband says that he must fire him because of his dishonesty and because he gave Krogstad’s job to Linde. The Nurse, Anne-Marie, enters and gives Nora her ball gown. Anne-Marie explains that she had to leave her children to take the job taking care of Nora. Anne-Marie leaves. Linde returns and begins to help Nora with stitching up her dress. They talk for a while about Dr.Rank. Nora asks Torvald again not to fire Krogstad but Torvald refuses. He gives Krogstad’s pink slip to the maid to be mailed to Krogstad. Rank enters and tells Nora about his worsening illness. They talk and flirt for a while. Rank tells Nora that he loves her. Nora said that she never loved Rank and only had fun with him. Rank leaves and Krogstad enters. He is angry about his dismissal and leaves a letter to Tarvald explaining Nora’s entire crime in the letter box. Nora is frightened, Nora tells Linde about the matter and Linde assures her that she will talk to Krogstad and set things straight. Linde leaves after Krogstad and Rank and Torvald enter. They help Nora practice the Tarantella.
After practice, Rank and Tarvald exists. Linde enters and tells Nora that Krogstad left town, but she left a note for him.
Nora tells Linde that she’s waiting for a miracle to happen. That night, during the dance, Linde talks to Krogstad in Helmer’s apartment. She explains to him that she left him for money, but that she still loves him. They get back together and Krogstad decides to forget about the whole matter of Nora’s borrowing money. Linde requests Krogstad not to ask for his letter back since she thinks Torvald needs to know of it. Both leave and Torvald and Nora enter from the dance.
Torvald checks his letter box and finds some letters and two Business cards from Dr.Rank with black crosses on them. Nora explains that they mean that Rank is announcing his death. After the bad news, Tarvald enters and Nora prepares to leave. Before, she can get out the door; she is stopped by Torvald who read Krogstad’s letter. He is angry and disavows his love for Nora. The maid comes with a letter. Torvald read the letter which is from Krogstad. It says that he forgives Nora of her crime and will not reveal it. Torvald burns the letter along with the IOU that came with it. He is happy and tells Nora that everything will return to normal. Nora changes and returns to talk with Helmer. She tells him that they don’t understand each other and she leaves him.


  • ‘Black hat’ and ‘black cross’ Symbolizes ‘death’
  • ‘Fisher girl costume’ Symbolizes ‘pretending to enjoy her life’
  • ‘Italy’ Symbolizes ‘the good false image of Nora’s life’
  • ‘Norway’ Symbolizes ‘reality’
  • ‘Doll House’ Symbolizes ‘the tendency of the characters to play roles’
  • ‘Toys’ Symbolizes ‘the act of pushing the roles into Nora’s children’
  • ‘Macaroons’ Symbolizes ‘Nora’s deceit to her husband’
  • ‘Tarantella’ Symbolizes ‘Nora’s agitation at her struggle with Krogstad and with her husband’
  • ‘Christmas tree’ Symbolizes ‘the mood of the play’
  • ‘Stockings’ Symbolizes Nora’s attitude trying to please men and her flirting with Rank’
  • ‘Letter box’ and letter Symbolizes ‘a trap for Nora and the cause of her demise’
  • ‘Embroidery’ Symbolizes ‘the stereotypes pressed on woman’
  • ‘Ring’ Symbolizes ‘the marriage, and the end of it’
  • ‘Skylark’ Symbolizes ‘the way that Tarvald treats Nora like a child’

By: Aqsa Riaz


The Rape of The Lock As a Mock Epic

The Rape of The Lock

The Rape of The Lock is the excellent mock epic in all aspects, grand style, grand theme, great hero and grand episodes in ridiculous manner.
Therefore it is called mock epic. The title of the poem ‘Rape of the lock’ indicates the mock heroic effects. The Rape is the most serious and moral offense which means the vindication of women’s chastity by force. The mean the cutting of lock is a great problem, morally, politically and society. The title of the poem evokes nothing but a mock heroic character of pope’s work.

The Rape of The Lock As a Mock Epic

  • Pope his made the mockery of the great heroic style and subject. The theme of ‘The Rape of the lock’ is cutting the lock of Belinda’s hair.
  • It is too trivial and too low to deserve any special treatment of epic theme, as pope says himself, ‘what dire offense from amorous causes spring, what mighty contest rice from trivial things’.
  • The Hero of ‘The Rape of The lock’ also indicates mock heroic effects. In the true epic great deeds of great hero are seem for the betterment of society.
  • In this mock epic the trivial incidents are done by trivial man who cuts the lock of Belinda of which he considers a great and adventurous deed, as text reveal ‘Say what a strange motives, Goddess would complete’
  • Used of machinery and supernatural characters. In pure epic the supernatural beings are Gods, Goddesses and Angels but in the mock heroic ‘The Rape of the lock’ the supernatural characters are sylphs and gnomes and nymphs.The light militias from the lower sky.
  • The structure of ‘The Rape of the lock’ is cast in the classical epic, but it is not serious epic.
  • It has divided into cantos. Like true epic it also has beginning, middle, and end, according to Aristotle’s concept of dramatic element in epic poetry.
  • The style of epic is sub line and dignified. The loftiness and sublimity is the soul of classical epic.
  • Triviality is not allowed in true epic. But in ‘Rape of the lock’ is common.
  • In classical Epic poetry Poets used long tale similes as does Spencer in Faire Queen and Milton in ‘The paradise lost’. He compares fallen Angels to autumn and Satan’s Shield with.
  • Pope has also used similes in trivial manners. He usessimiles when  Belinda demands her ravished lock from Baron as ‘Not fierce Othello is as load for the lanker chief that causes The Pain’

The Rape of The Lock As a Mock Epic By

AQSA RIAZ ( The Rape Of The Lock ).

General Linguistics Notes

Second Language Acquisition Barriers


These are the obvious reasons for the problems experienced in second language acquisition, and most of them are related that people attempt to learn another language during their teenage or adult years, in a few hours each week of school time, and they have a lot of other things to take care of, instead a child learns via the constant interaction that he or she experiences, and has not many things else to do. Besides the adult or teenage people have an already known language available for most of their daily communicative requirements.
There are other reasons, for example the suggestion that adults tongues get stiff from pronouncing one type of language and just cannot cope with the sounds of another language. However there is not physical evidence to support this.
Maybe the primary difficulty for most people can be captured in terms of a distinction between acquisition and learning.
The term acquisition refers to the gradual development of ability in a language by using it naturally in communicative situations. Instead the term learning applies to the conscious process of accumulating knowledge of the vocabulary and grammar of a language.
Activities related with learning have traditionally been used in language teaching in schools, and if they are successful tend to result in knowledge about the language studied. Activities related with acquisition are those experienced by the
young child and by those who pick up another language from long periods spent in social interaction, the language used daily, in another country.
Those whose second language experience is primarily a learning one tend not to develop the proficiency of those who have had an acquiring experience.

However, even in ideal acquisition situations, very few adults seem to reach native like proficiency in using a second language. There are suggestions that some features, for example vocabulary or grammar, of a second language are easier to acquire than other, for example phonology. Sometimes this is taken as evidence that after the critical period has passed, around puberty, it becomes very difficult to acquire another language fully. It has been demonstrated that students in their early teens are quicker and more effective second language learners than, for example 7 year old. It may be, of course, that the acquisition of a second language requires a combination of factors. The optimum age may be during the years 11-16 when the flexibility of the language acquisition faculty has not been completely lost, and the maturation of cognitive skills allows more effective working out of the regular features of the second language encountered.
Yet during this optimum age, there may exist an acquisition barrier of quite a different sort. Teenagers are typically much more self conscious than young children. If there is a strong element of unwillingness or embarrassment in attempting to produce the different sounds of other languages, then it may override whatever physical and cognitive abilities there are. If this self-consciousness is combined with a lack of empathy with the foreign culture, then the subtle effects of not wanting to sound like a Russian or an American may strongly inhibit the acquisition process.


Language acquisition is the ability of the brain in its cognitive development & process to conceptualize concepts,structures and semantics in a language , while learning is the active participation and effort to learn a language. Language teachers devise methods as components of language acquisition, while learners use them to learn.

Language acquisition is a natural process for any native to acquire his native vernacular language.Language learning is a structured system for anyone to learn a language.

Language Acquisition & Language Learning:

It is important to understand the difference between language acquisition, in which language is acquired, and
language learning, in which language is learned. The term second language refers to a language developed in addition to one’s first language. Some children acquire a second language in much the same way as a first language, for example, if they move to another country at a young age or if their caregiver speaks a different language. But in most cases a second language is learned, rather than acquired. That is, the second language is developed with a conscious effort rather than by actually using the language naturally. Most learners of Dena’ina are learning in this way, with concious effort.
There are many differences between first language acquisition and second language learning. There are also many myths about these difference. It is generally true that it is easier to acquire a first language than it is to learn a second language. But the reasons for this difference are for the most part based on the difference between acquisition and learning.
One myth is that it is somehow easier to learn a language if it was spoken by your ancestors. Whle there may be a genetic disposition toward the human capacity for language, there is no genetic disposition toward a particular language. Thus, in theory it is no easier for a person of Dena’ina heritage to learn Dena’ina than to learn French (though the ready availability of curriculum and speakers may make French easier in practice).
Another common myth is that children simply learn language easier than adults. Children do indeed seem to develop better pronunciation skills than do adults who learn language later in life. In fact, it is nearly impossible for adults to develop completely native-like pronunciation. However, adults are just as capable of learning language as are children. The reasons it seems easier for children has less to do with age than with other factors that go along with age.
Most significantly, a child is in a very special privileged position in society. Errors which seem cute when made by a child are odd or weird when made by an adult. We are happy to smile and talk “baby-talk” with a child, but reluctant to do this for adults.
Children are happy to babble away to themselves, while adults may be more self-conscious. Overcoming some of this reluctance to appear child-like may significantly improve the success of second-language learners.

Language acquisition vs language learning:

There is an important distinction made by linguists between language acquisition and language learning. Children acquire
language through a subconscious process during which they are unaware of grammatical rules. This is similar to the way they acquire their first language. They get a feel for what is and what isn’t correct. In order to acquire language, the learner needs a source of natural communication. The emphasis is on the text of the communication and not on the form. Young students who are in the process of acquiring English get plenty of “on the job” practice. They readily acquire the language to communicate with classmates.

Language learning, on the other hand, is not communicative. It is the result of direct instruction in the rules of language. And it certainly is not an age-appropriate activity for your young learners. In language learning, students have conscious knowledge of the new language and can talk about that knowledge. They can fill in the blanks on a grammar page. Research has shown, however, that knowing grammar rules does not necessarily result in good speaking or writing.r A student who has memorized the rules of the language may be able to succeed on a standardized test of English language but may not be able to speak or write correctly.


All learners in the process of acquiring a second language have an invisible filter inside of them that has the potential to result in anxiety, stress, and lack of self-confidence. This invisible filter is theoretically called the affective filter, and it has an important role in the learning (or not) of another language.

Some people have a naturally low affective filter and are relatively confident about learning a second language. However, not everyone is so lucky. Many other people have experienced anxiety and inability to effectively comprehend or communicate well in another language. They sweat, stammer, and butcher the language.
They can’t seem to control what comes out of their mouth. Sometimes they can’t even utter a peep.

The affective filter can make or break proficiency in a second language.

It was because of a high affective filter that I took a long detour on my personal route to proficiency in Spanish. In high school I was able to pick up Spanish relatively quickly. As a senior in high school, my Spanish was much more developed than other native English-speaking students and I was the lone native English speaker in the Advanced Placement Spanish literature class. Most of the students in the class were recent arrivals from Mexico and didn’t speak English.

One day as we were reading Don Quixote, the Spanish teacher began to review irregular past tense verbs that were being used in the story. He wrote two sentences on the board with the Spanish verb traer and we had to choose the correct irregular conjugation. I raised my hand and identified the correct irregular conjugation, traje. Suddenly, one of my classmates began to giggle across the room and she said. “No, traí”. Which of course was incorrect, but I suddenly became confused. The teacher quickly verified that I had answered correctly. I was absolutely mortified and sat there in shame for the rest of the class period, even though I had answered correctly. All I could hear was the giggling.
I never spoke Spanish in front of a native Spanish speaker for almost four years. Every time that someone would talk to me in Spanish, I responded in English.

In college I refused to speak Spanish in my classes and my competence in Spanish was always underestimated and
misidentified. In my third year of Spanish at the university level, one professor did not even believe that I was writing my own essays and made me write an essay in front of her. As I walked out the door, she said, “If you could only speak as well as you write-then I would say you are proficient”.

I responded, “I probably could speak as proficiently as I write. It’s sad that it will never happen”.

I’m not exactly sure what happened and when I began to feel comfortable enough to speak Spanish again. I’m sure it had
something to do with the many parents of the children that I taught who seemed impressed with and appreciative of my attempts to communicate with them. It also had a bit to do with the many native Spanish-speakers who barely even noticed the errors that I frequently made.

Over the years I have naturally learned how to lower my affective filter and have become more confident with my proficiency in Spanish. But every once in a while something happens, like a room full of one hundred Spanish-speaking parents who are upset about something, and my affective filter begins to rise. In those moments I’m typically shocked at the disaster that begins to come out of my mouth. I can turn from an advanced Spanish speaker to a blubbering fool in the blink of an eye. Well, maybe not a blubbering fool, but at least someone who sounds like they just started learning Spanish.

In applied linguistics, the grammar translation method is a foreign language teaching method derived from the classical (sometimes called traditional) method of teaching Greek and Latin. The method requires students to translate whole texts word for word and memorize numerous grammatical rules and exceptions as well as enormous vocabulary lists. The goal of this method is to be able to read and translate literary masterpieces and classics.

The Grammar Translation Method:

The Grammar Translation Method is the oldest method of teaching in India. A number of methods and techniques have evolved for the teaching of English and also other foreign languages in the recent past, yet this method is still in use in many part of India. It maintains the mother tongue of the learner as the reference particularly in the process of learning the second/ foreign languages. The main principles on which the Grammar Translation Method is based are the following:

1.Translation interprets the words and phrases of the foreign languages in the best possible manner.

2.The phraseology and the idiom of the target language can best be assimilated in the process of interpretation.

3.The structures of the foreign languages are best learned when compared and contrast with those of mother tongue.

In this method, while teaching the text book the teacher translates every word and phrase from English into the learners mother tongue. Further, students are required to translate sentences from their mother tongue into English. These exercises in translation are based on various items covering the grammar of the target language. The method emphasizes the study of grammar through deduction that is through the study of the rules of grammar. A contrastive study of the target language with the mother tongue gives an insight into the structure not only of the foreign language but also of the mother tongue.


1. The phraseology of the target language is quickly explained. Translation is the easiest way of explaining meanings or
words and phrases from one language into another. Any other method of explaining vocabulary items in the second
language is found time consuming. A lot of time is wasted if the meanings of lexical items are explained through definitions and illustrations in the second language. Further, learners acquire some sort of accuracy in understanding
synonyms in the source language and the target language.

2.Teacher’s labor is saved. Since the textbooks are taught through the medium of the mother tongue, the teacher may
ask comprehension questions on the text taught in the mother tongue. Pupils will not have much difficulty in responding
to questions in the mother tongue. So, the teacher can easily assess whether the students have learned what he has taught
them. Communication between the teacher and the learner does not cause linguistic problems. Even teachers who are not fluent in English can teach English through this method. That is perhaps the reason why this method has been practiced so widely and has survived so long.


1. It is an unnatural method. The natural order of learning a language is listening, speaking, reading and writing. That is the way a child learns his mother tongue in natural surroundings; but, in the Grammar Translation Method the teaching of the second language starts with the teaching of reading. Thus, the learning process is reversed. This poses problems.

2. Speech is neglected. The Grammar Translation Method lays emphasis on reading and writing. It neglects speech. Thus,
the students who are taught English through this method fail to express themselves adequately in spoken English. Even
at the undergraduate stage they feel shy of communicating using English. It has been observed that in a class, which
is taught English through this method, learners listen to the mother tongue more than that to the second/foreign language. Since language learning involves habit formation such students fail to acquire a habit of speaking English.
Therefore, they have to pay a heavy price for being taught through this method.

3.Exact translation is not possible. Translation is, indeed, a difficult task and exact translation from one language to
another is not always possible. A language is the result of various customs, traditions, and modes of behavior of a speech community and these traditions differ from community to community. There are several lexical items in one language, which have no synonyms/equivalents in another language. For example, the meaning of the English word ‘table’ does not fit in such expressions as ‘table of contents’, ‘table of figures’, ‘multiplication table’, ‘time table’ and ‘table the resolution’, etc. English prepositions are also difficult to translate. Consider sentences such as ‘We see with our eyes’, ‘Bombay is far from Delhi’, ‘He died of cholera’, ‘He succeeded through hard work’. In these sentences ‘with’, ‘from’, ‘of’, and ‘through’ can be translated into the Hindi preposition ‘se’ and vice versa. Each language has its own structure, idiom and usage, which do not have their exact counterparts in another language. Thus, translation should be considered an index of one’s proficiency in a language.

4.It does not give pattern practice. A person can learn a language only when he internalizes its patterns to the extent that they form his habit. But the Grammar Translation Method does not provide any such practice to the learner of a language. It rather attempts to teach language through rules and not by use. Researchers in linguistics have proved that to speak any language, whether native or foreign, entirely by rule is quite impossible. Language learning means acquiring certain skills, which can be learned through practice and not by just memorizing rules. The persons who have learned a foreign or second language through this method find it difficult to give up the habit of first thinking in their mother tongue and then translating their ideas into the second language. They, therefore, fail to get proficiency in the second language approximating that in the first language. The method, therefore, suffers from certain weaknesses for which there is no remedy.


The grammar translation method stayed in schools until the 1960s, when a complete foreign language pedagogy evaluation was taking place. In the meantime, teachers experimented with approaches like the direct method in post-war and Depression era classrooms, but without much structure to follow. The trusty grammar translation method set the pace for many classrooms for many decades.

Monty Python made fun of the grammar translation method in their film Life of Brian.

The audio-lingual method, Army Method, or New Key[1], is a style of teaching used in teachingforeign languages. It is based on behaviorist theory, which professes that certain traits of living things, and in this case humans, could be trained through a system of reinforcement—correct use of a trait would receive positive feedback while incorrect use of that trait would receive negative feedback.

This approach to language learning was similar to another, earlier method called the direct method. Like the direct method, the audio-lingual method advised that students be taught a language directly, without using the students’ native language to explain new words or grammar in the target language. However, unlike the direct method, the audio-lingual method didn’t focus on teaching vocabulary. Rather, the teacher drilled students in the use of grammar.

Applied to language instruction, and often within the context of the language lab, this means that the instructor would present the correct model of a sentence and the students would have to repeat it. The teacher would then continue by presenting new words for the students to sample in the same structure. In audio-lingualism, there is no explicit grammar instruction—everything is simply memorized in form. The idea is for the students to practice the particular construct until they can use it spontaneously. In this manner, the lessons are built on static drills in which the students have little or no control on their own output; the teacher is expecting a particular response and not providing that will result in a student receiving negative feedback. This type of activity, for the foundation of language learning, is in direct opposition
with communicative language teaching.

Charles Fries, the director of the English Language Institute at the University of Michigan, the first of its kind in the United States, believed that learning structure, or grammar was the starting point for the student. In other words, it was the students’ job to orally recite the basic sentence patterns and grammatical structures. The students were only given “enough vocabulary to make such drills possible.” (Richards, J.C. et-al. 1986). Fries later included

principles for behavioural psychology, as developed by B.F. Skinner, into this method.


Inflection : Teacher : I ate the sandwich. Student : I ate the sandwiches.
Replacement : Teacher : He bought the car for half-price.
Student : He bought it for half-price.
Restatement : Teacher : Tell me not to smoke so often.
Student : Don’t smoke so often!

The following example illustrates how more than one sort of drill can be incorporated into one practice session :

“Teacher: There’s a cup on the table … repeat
Students: There’s a cup on the table
Teacher: Spoon
Students: There’s a spoon on the table
Teacher: Book
Students: There’s a book on the table
Teacher: On the chair
Students: There’s a book on the chair etc.

Historical Background:

The Audio-lingual method is the product of three historical circumstances. For its views on language, audiolingualism drew on the work of American linguists such as Leonard Bloomfield.
The prime concern of American Linguistics at the early decades of the 20th century had been to document all the indigenous languages spoken in the USA. However, because of the dearth of trained native teachers who would provide a theoretical description of the native languages, linguists had to rely on observation. For the same reason, a strong focus on oral language was developed. At the same time, behaviorist psychologists such as B.F. Skinner were forming the belief that all behavior (including language) was learnt through repetition and positive or negative reinforcement.

The third factor that enabled the birth of the Audio-lingual method was the outbreak of World War II, which created the need to post large number of American servicemen all over the world. It was therefore necessary to provide these soldiers with
at least basic verbal communication skills. Unsurprisingly, the new method relied on the prevailing scientific methods of the time, observation and repetition, which were also admirably suited to teaching en masse. Because of the influence of the military, early versions of the audio-lingualism came to be known as the “army method.

Relationship with other methods and approaches:

Historically, CLT has been seen as a response to the audio-lingual method (ALM), and as an extension or development of
the notional-functional syllabus. Task-based language learning, a more recent refinement of CLT, has gained considerably in popularity.

The Communicative Approach was founded by Robert Langs:

Psychoanalysis has turned reality on its head: We are taught to think of ourselves as distorters and misperceivers, unreliable slaves to our inner fantasies – especially when we are patients in therapy. But the communicative approach has shown that it is more accurate and compelling to see ourselves as highly reliable perceivers, with the understanding that our most valid perceptions are experienced unconsciously and encoded in the stories we tell to ourselves and others. Knowing how to decode these stories is the key to a truly accurate view of the human emotion-processing mind and emotional life.

The full name of the Communicative Approach (CA) is “The Communicative-Adaptive approach.” This highlights the two
most distinctive features of the CA: first, that it is a new way to understand human emotionally-laden communications and second, that it has shown that the primary function of the emotion-processing mind is to cope with – adapt to – immediate emotionally-charged triggering events.

What is the communicative approach?

The communicative approach (CA) was developed by Robert Langs MD, In the early 1970’s. It is a new theory or paradigm of emotional life and psychoanalysis that is centered on human adaptations to emotionally-charged events–with full appreciation that such adaptations take place both within awareness (consciously) and outside of awareness (unconsciously). The approach gives full credence to the unconscious side of emotional life and has rendered it highly sensible and incontrovertible by discovering a new, validated, and deeply meaningful way of decoding unconscious messages. This procedure-called trigger decoding–has brought forth new and highly illuminating revisions
of our understanding of both emotional life and psychotherapy, and it calls for significant changes in presently accepted
psychoanalytic thinking and practice.

The CA has exposed and offered correctives for much of what’s wrong with our current picture of the emotional mind and today’s psychotherapies-critical errors in thinking and practice that have cause untold suffering throughout the world. In essence, the approach has shown that emotional problems do not arise first and foremost from disturbing inner memories and fantasies or daydreams; nor do they arise primarily from consciously known thoughts and patterns of behavior. Instead, emotional disturbances arise primarily from failed efforts at coping with current emotionally-charged traumas. The present-day focus by mainstream psychoanalysts (MP) on the past and on inner fantasies and memories has been replaced in this CA with a focus on the present, as experienced and reacted to consciously and unconsciously-in brief, the primacy afforded by MP to fantasy and imagination has been replaced by the primacy afforded by the CA.

Second Language Acquisition
Demonstrates Proprio-Kinesthetic language learning (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

Inflation and its consequences

High rates of Inflation are harmful to an economy. Inflation redistributes income and wealth. Uncertainty about the value
of money makes business planning more difficult. Constantly changing prices impose.


Inflation is the name given to an increase in price levels generally. It is also manifest in the decline in the purchasing power of money.
Historically, there have been very few periods when inflation has not been present. We discuss below why high rates of inflation are considered to be harmful. However, it is important to remember that deflation (falling prices) is normally associated with low rates of growth and even recession. It would seem that a healthy economy may require some inflation. Certainly, if an economy is to grow, the money supply must expand, and the presence of a low level of inflation will ensure that growth is not hampered by a shortage of liquid funds.

Why is inflation a problem?

An economic policy objective which now has a central place in the policy approaches of the governments of many developed countries is that of stable prices. Why is a high rate of price inflation harmful and undesirable?

1. Redistribution of income and health:

Inflation leads to a redistribution of income and wealth in ways which may be undesirable. Redistribution of wealth might take place from account payable to accounts receivable.

This is because debts lose ‘real’ value with inflation. For example, if you owed $1,000 and prices then doubled, you would still owe $1,000, but the real value of your debt would have been halved. In general, in times of inflation those with economic power tend to gain at the expense of the weak, particularly those on fixed incomes.

2. Balance of payments effects:

If a country has higher rate of inflation than its major trading partners, its export will become relatively expensive and imports relatively cheap. As a result, the balance of trade will suffer, affecting employment in exporting industries and in industries producing import-substitutes. Eventually, the exchange rate will be affected.

3. Uncertainty of the value of money and prices:

If the rate of inflation is imperfectly anticipated, no one has certain knowledge of the true rate of inflation. As a result, no one has certain knowledge of the true value of money or of the real meaning of prices. If the rate of inflation becomes excessive, and there is ‘hyperinflation’ this problem becomes so exaggerated that money becomes worthless, so that people are unwilling to use it and are forced to resort to barter. In less extreme circumstances, the results are less dramatic, but the same problem exists. As prices convey less information, the process of resource allocation is less efficient and rational decision-making is almost impossible.

4. Resource costs of changing prices:

A fourth reason to aim for stable prices is the resource cost of frequently changing prices. In times of high inflation substantial labor time is spent on planning and implementing price changes. Customers may also have to spend more time making price comparisons if they seek to buy from the lowest cost source.

5. Economic growth and investment:

It is sometimes claimed that inflation is harmful to a country’s economic growth and level of investment. A study by Robert Barro (bank of England quarterly bulletin, May 1995) examined whether the evidence available supports this view. Barro found from data covering over 100 countries from 1960-1990 that, on average, an increase in inflation of 10 percentage points per year reduced the growth rate of real GDP per capita by 0.2 to 0.3 percentage points per year, and lowered the ratio of investment to GDP by 0.4 to 0.6 percentage points. Although the adverse influence of inflation on economic growth and investment appears small, this could affect a country’s standard of living fairly significantly over the long term.



Language Features

“Language features”

Some language effects used in oral transactional text and speeches. Some of these appear in poetic texts also.

Rhetorical devices:

Rhetorical means language and effects used to impress or persuade the audience.

Rhetorical question:

A question asked for effect, but not necessarily needing to be answered.

Example: Are we going to put up with curfews and being hassled by the police up town? Who cares? Do you think it is right? I don’t. How do you stay healthy on a diet of chips and chocolate?


Trying to impress or influence by overstating a viewpoint, statement or idea.

Example: Millions of students all over the world go home and rush eagerly into their homework in order to secure their future.


As above, but understating a viewpoint for effect.

Example: a few students will wander home and perhaps turn on television.


When two opposite viewpoint, ideas or concepts are placed close to each other for effect.

Example: the two examples above could be an example of contrast if put together. Or let us break the chains, shackles and nightmare of slavery and embrace each other in the dream of freedom.

Quotations from well-known sources:

Such as the Bible, television, movies, proverbs and quotations of famous poets and writers of history, can be used in writings.

Example: turn the other cheek, an eye for an eye and a tooth for a tooth, yabba dabba dooo, eat my shorts, it’s moments like these… …, make my day; I’ll be back!, a stitch in time saves nine, a bird in the hand is worth two in the bush straight from the horse’s mouth.

“Conscious use of personal pronouns”

As speakers we want to make our audience agree with us in our viewpoints and be against things we are against. The deliberate uses of including or excluding pronouns help speakers do this.

Pronouns to address the audience:

Basically to address them as a group, but not necessarily to persuade them at this stage.

Example: you are here tonight to witness the finals of the speech contest, where your sons and daughters face up to a great challenge.

Pronouns to include the audience:

Speakers want the audience to be on their side and agree with their statements/ideas.

Example: we came here tonight to choose our town symbol. We don’t want a clock- Alexander has a clock. We don’t want a humungus trout as our symbol-Rakaia and Turangi have megatrouts. Let us choose our White horse- it’s ours and always will be.


Pronouns to exclude the audience or to distance the audience:

Sometimes we want to distance the audience from those who have differing arguments.

Example: so our elders want a curfew in Waimate. They it is a good idea to have a curfew of 8 o’clock on a school night for people of our age. Let them have a curfew of 8 o’clock so that they can be out of the pubs and clubs and home with their families as well. They cause more harm in society than teenagers do.

“Emotive language”

Similar in effect to use of pronouns, choice of words packed with emotion can influence an audience for or against your ideas, to be with you or against you.

Words with positive connotation:

Warm fuzzy words that help to get the audience on your side.

Example: imagine the perfect scene, not a care in the world, waling down the street hand in hand with your adoring parents… they stop and buy you a $1.50 triple scoop choc dipped ice-cream…

Words with negative connotation:

These weasel words have the opposite effect to positively charge emotive words.

Example: from a distance you see them appear, dressed in black, hair like knotted liquor ice. Their top lips quiver and sneer in unison like Elvis with a toothache. They see you and appear to scowl and grunt at each other and point at you accusingly.


Similar to exaggeration and understatement close together, +ve and –ve words in close proximity can highlight and improve the effectiveness of your ideas.

Example: your ‘nice’ day is now ruined. The triple scoop ice-cream melts them then drips all over your black jersey and up your sleeve. You try sneering like the black-uniformed teenagers in front of you, but your lips are numb from the “ice-cream treat”, but what tops it off your parents say to you in their loudest voice “Aren’t you going to introduce us to your friends dear?” you look around for the nearest manhole cover and hope you can prise it open with sticky, ice-cream covered fingers.

“Some language effects used in oral & written transaction texts and speeches, some of these appear in poetic texts also”

“Sounds devices”

  Speeches are normally only meant to be heard once, so the speaker normally tries to make main ideas, keywords and phrases memorable using sound effects and devices.


Repeating the initial consonant of group of words for aural effect and memorable.

Example: we’ve all heard of Richie Rich, Daffy Duck, Fred Flinstone, Sylvester Stallone and Morris Minor, but the latest and nastiest alliterative villain to slam our screens-a cartoon nasty that leaves Lex Luthor and Dick Dastardly in his dust is Vicious vinnie.


Repeating vowel sounds for aural effect

Example: laugh, laugh, cackle and guffaw.


Where the words used sounds like the thing or concept being described


Wind swishing or moaning in the treetops

Frost crunching underfoot

Cock a doodle doo woof woof


Words sounding similar that are pleasant to the ear… they also appeal because the listener can almost predict a part of the speech.

Example: chocolate chips, greasy dips and dairy whips, these are the foods that little teenager are made of.

“Figurative language”

Language that creates a picture in the mind of the listener can assist in the interest level of speech. The listener visualizes or imagines figures, images and comparisons.


Describing two unrelated things using direct comparison. Sometimes the metaphor can be drawn out and becomes an Extended Metaphor.


… … her gaze was icy…

… The salesman was a shark…

The whole sorry incident left a sour taste for every one concerned.

Politicians should darn the holes in the ragged economy before we all start to feel the cold.


Describing two unrelated things or ideas using the linkers “Like” or “As”


1. My love is like a red, red rose that’s newly sprung in June, my love is like a melody that’s sweetly played in tune.

2. as fast as leopard, as good as gold, as thick as a brick, as sharp as a tack, as silly as a two bob watch, as crook as a dog, like a rat up a drainpipe, like bees around a honey pot.


Giving human qualities to non human inanimate things.


  1. The New Zealand Dollar had a quite week
  2. life dealt him a heavy blow
  3. clouds passed sorrowfully over the graveyard

“Other oratorical devices”

These are some other devices which help to make speeches more interesting, vibrant and memorable.


Hammer home a point and make it memorable using repetition

Example: Trust is an important concept in society. If you can’t trust friends not to blab your secrets all over school, if you can’t trust teachers not to blast you for something that he or she let someone away with yesterday, if parents can’t trust you enough to let you borrow the car-how can you survive in the modern world?

Parallel structure:

This is like repetition, except that phrases and groups of words are repeated for effect.

Example: I have a dream. I have a dream that the sons and daughters of former slaves and the sons and daughters of former slave owners will sit down at the table of brotherhood.

We shall fight them on the beaches; we shall fight them on land and in the air.


In order to emphasis important points lists are often use.


1. Instead of: this school rule change affects all students, say this new school rule change affect from 1’s ; from 2’s ; from 3’s ; from 4’s ; from 5’s ; from 6’s ; even from 7’s.


2. instead of saying a superannuation law change affects everyone say: this law change will impact on town people and country people; rich people and poor people, Maori, pacific islander, Asian and European; employed and unemployed alike.



By: Aqsa Riaz