Categories
Woman Power

Feminism & Britton’s Concept of “WE”

Feminism & Britton’s Concept of “WE”

 

         In feminism, Britton believes in regard to femininity (ies) and identities in what are those that “make the world” and what are the basis to create distinctions behind.

 

                        “the subjects and events of the world do not present themselves to us ready classified . the categories into which they are divided are the categories into which we divided them” (1975: 23).

Spender 1975 also considers that powerful determination is language. Men has made world to imprison women, culturally and domestically. Dominance is of men. Britton argues that women are inhabited and passive in role in men made world. The power value and authorities reflects in reality. The value of men is anti to women. No doubt that patriarchal society represent women in comparison to men as ‘OTHER” and “I” is always in subjective position to men in ideologies and discourse(Belsey: 1985, Mullinex: 1996, Orgell: 1997).

 

       In the first wave of feminism women are less independent as in Victorian society of Ibsen that is actually the start of gender equalization in form of feminist movements like Suffrage ,comparatively the dramas novels  of Victorian society of late 18th and 19th century of autobiographical by women writers on the other hand male writes depicts the society  as art for art sake while female writers use pseudo name to hide their identity under the supremacy  of man in patriarchal society.

 

  If we talk about the modern literature the “WE” referred by Britton, the division and organization is based on which principles?, Who make the world? Spender argues that Britton actually refers to male. So male is a superior group producing culture, language… contradicting values of man are against to the values of women. So that why women  writers are always at wish to reshape the set of norms and values to produce objectivity instead of subjectivity. Women of classical literature is quite different from women of post modern literature. Feminist movements has changed the ideologies of female writers from autobiography to realism, feminism and other social draw backs .modern women writer it self dependant than Victorian. Trend has been set by Virginia Woolf. Women is now writing for women is challenge to early and female writers that use pseudonym to explore the realities discursive constructed by men.

Feminism: One of the symbols of German Women's ...
Feminism: One of the symbols of German Women’s movement (Photo credit: Wikipedia)
Categories
Shakespeare Shakespeare's Life

Shakespeare’s Story

[schema type=”person” name=”William Shakespeare” url=”http://eliterarysociety.com” description=”Shakespeare Biography, Shakespeare’s Early Years, Shakespeare’s Family, Shakespeare’s Later Years, Shakespeare’s Theater Career, Top 10 Most Important Plays” country=”UK” ]

Shakespeare’s Life Story

Amazingly, we know very little about Shakespeare’s life. Even though he is the world’s most famous and popular playwright, historians have had to fill in the gaps between the handful of surviving records from Elizabethan times.

Shakespeare Biography:

The Basics Born: April 23, 1564 Died: April 23, 1616 Married Anne Hathaway in November 1582 Born and raised in Stratford-upon-Avon, England, but moved to London in the late 1580s. Shakespeare’s 37 plays and 154 sonnets are considered the most important and enduring ever written. Although the plays have captured the imagination of theatergoers for centuries, some historians claim that Shakespeare didn’t actually write them.

Shakespeare’s Early Years:

Shakespeare was probably born on April 23, 1564, but this date is an educated guess because we only have a record of his baptism three days later. His parents, John Shakespeare and Mary Arden, were successful townsfolk who moved to a large house in Henley Street, Stratford-upon-Avon from the surrounding villages. His father became a wealthy town official and his mother was from an important, respected family. It is widely assumed that he attended the local grammar school where he would have studied Latin, Greek and classical literature. His early education must have made a huge impact on him because many of his plots draw on the classics.

Shakespeare’s Family:

At 18, Shakespeare married Anne Hathaway from Shottery who was already pregnant with their first daughter. The wedding would have been arranged quickly to avoid the shame of having a child born out of wedlock. Shakespeare fathered three children in all:

Susanna: born in May 1583, but conceived out of wedlock Judith and

Hamnet: twins born in February 1585 Hamnet died in 1596, at age 11. Shakespeare was devastated by the death of his only son, and it is argued that Hamlet, written four years later, is evidence of this.

Shakespeare’s Theater Career:

At some point in the late 1580s, Shakespeare made the four-day ride to London, and by 1592 had established himself as a writer. In 1594 came the event that changed the course of literary history – Shakespeare joined Richard Burbage’s acting company and became its chief playwright for the next two decades. Here, Shakespeare was able to hone his craft, writing for a regular group of performers. Shakespeare also worked as an actor in the theater company, although the lead roles were always reserved for Burbage himself. The company became very successful and often performed in front of the Queen of England, Elizabeth I. In 1603, James I ascended the throne and granted his royal patronage to Shakespeare’s company, which became known as The King’s Men.

Top 10 Most Important Plays (in chronological order):

  • Romeo and Juliet (1594-1595)
  • A Midsummer Night’s Dream (1595-1596)
  • Much Ado About Nothing (1598-1599)
  • Henry V (1598-1599)
  • Twelfth Night (1599-1600)
  • Hamlet (1600-1601)
  • Measure for Measure (1604-1605)
  • King Lear (1605-1606)
  • Macbeth ( 1605-1606)
  • The Tempest (1611-1612)

Shakespeare the Gentleman:

Like his father, Shakespeare had excellent business sense. He had bought the largest house in Stratford-upon-Avon by 1597, he owned shares in the Globe Theater, and profited from some real estate deals near Stratford-upon-Avon in 1605. Before long, Shakespeare officially became a gentleman, partly due to his own wealth and partly due to inheriting a coat of arms from his father who died in 1601.

Shakespeare’s Later Years:

Shakespeare retired to Stratford in 1611 and lived comfortably off his wealth for the rest of his life. In his will, he bequeathed most of his properties to Susanna, his eldest daughter, and some actors from The King’s Men. Famously, he left his wife his “second best bed” before he died on April 23, 1616 (this date is an educated guess because we only have a record of his burial two days later). If you visit Holy Trinity Church in Stratford-upon-Avon, you can still view his grave and read his epitaph engraved into the stone: Good friend, for Jesus’ sake forbear To dig the dust enclosed here. Blessed be the man that spares these stones, And cursed be he that moves my bones.

William Shakespeare
Cover of William Shakespeare
Shakespeare